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Delectus - Scientific Journal, Inicc-Perú - [ISSN: 2663-1148]

URL: https://revista.inicc-peru.edu.pe/index.php/delectus

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus

Email: publicaciones.iniccperu@gmail.com

Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): January-June [Edit closure: 01/01/2021]


RECEIVED: 09/10/2020 | ACCEPTED: 07/12/2020 | PUBLISHED: 01/01/2021

Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)

Rentería Castro, E. (2020). Conceptual demarcation between online education or distance education. Delectus, 4(1), 16-31. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i1.98


Conceptual demarcation between online education or distance education

Enrique Rentería Castro

DIRECTOR GENERAL DEL INSTITUTO DE EVALUACIÓN Y DESARROLLO EDUCATIVO, PRESIDENTE CLUB UNESCO COMPSE, México
enrique.renteria@clubunescocompse.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7028-7172

COVID-19 achieved in a few days what the educational reforms for 25 years have not been able to achieve: promoting the use of digital tools, at different educational levels, of the teaching and learning processes; transforming the organization and structure of the school.However, this emerging action is generating improvisations and decontextualization of the approach and concepts of Virtual Pedagogy.To affirm that the Zoom, Facebook and WhatsApp applications are educational platforms that allow the teaching-learning processes to be successfully achieved and that online education is a modality called Distance Education are erroneous propositions that must be defined and contextualized so as not to distort the scientific approach that they have managed to advance Education, Pedagogy and Didactics.The purpose of this article is to define the following concepts: Distance Education; Online Education using the different digital tools that technology has managed to develop and that require a definition of Virtual Pedagogy.

Keywords: Distance education, online education, pedagogy, didactics, curriculum, educational platform.

Background and definition of distance education.

Distance Education is a modality that emerged during the 18th century. The classic definition of distance education refers to any formal implementation of learning, in which most of the instruction occurs at a distance. The conjunction of printed services and traditional mail laid the foundations for the development of the first distance educational experiences. We must mention that the first debate regarding the teaching model arises between the educational model of patristic education implemented throughout the world and the model proposed by the first Industrial Revolution, where serial production and technological inventions are originated. promote a new form of production and consumption, society as a whole transform the educational system for children and young people to attend school, learning and training to contribute to production by working in factories.

Therefore, the person who is interested in learning new knowledge and being able to make use of the new tools for production, registered in a course called distance, which arises through the postal service, a system dedicated to transporting written documents, as well as small or medium size packages, to be transported around the world, by land, sea or air. All shipments made through the postal service were named mail or correspondence.

Each of the inventions that have emerged, throughout history, are the basis for the generation of informative documents and consequently the evolution of the processes for communication and dissemination of the message. The first of these inventions is writing and the first documents of an organized system come from Egypt (2400 BC) where the pharaohs use messengers to spread their decrees throughout the territory, these decrees were written with ink on papyrus and parchment. Also used by the Babylonians, Greeks and Romans. Until being replaced by paper in the year 105 d. C.

Postal institutions are opening in different nations; in France it arose with Charlemagne in 807; in Spain the postal service is referenced in 1213; in Germany, in the middle of the XV; In Mexico in 1580; In England, the first postal service was established in 1635. The consolidation of this service also made progress due to the inventions that emerged over the years; Among them we can point out the printing of the German Johannes Gutenberg between the years 1449 and 1452, with the publication of the Missal of Constance and the Bible, respectively. Another invention is the railway in the 16th century, in the mines of Transylvania and in Great Britain in the 17th century; and its evolution to the steam locomotive in 1804.

Distance education in these periods was defined as an educational modality, to train or train in a practical field apprentices or students of a trade who are geographically far from the place of the educational establishment or the instructor's home; It was promoted through written documents that include: explanation, imparting of knowledge or explanation of steps to solve a specific activity.

Table 1.
The evolution of Distance EducationGarcía Arieto(1991).
YEAR AUTHOR COURSE
1728 Calleb Phillips (American) Correspondence courses to learn shorthand, advert published in the Boston Gazette.
1833 A.J. Meuller (Swedish) Course of Composition by Correspondence, September change of address in Lunds Weckobland newspaper.
1840 Issac Pitman (English) Correspondence College Pitman shorthand system (1837) based on cards.
1843 PHONOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE SOCIETY Institution with regulations for distance training receives, corrects and sends the shorthand exercises of the correspondence course.
1856 Charles Toussaint (French) y Gustav Langescheidt (German) Institute of languages by correspondence.
1858 Skerry College from the University of London, Edimburgh, UK Distance classes for civil service candidates.
1873 Ana Elit Tickner (americans) Collective Association of Correspondence Schools to Promote Home Studies.
1903 Julio Cervera Baviera (Spanish) Free School of Engineers. Correspondence courses.
1922 University of Pennsylvania. USA The first institution to broadcast courses by radio, more than 200 colleges and universities had broadcasting licenses as of 1925.
1934 Federal Communications Commission. USA Manages radio frequencies for college education.
1947 Popular Cultural Action Colombia A genuinely Latina American model with the so-called radio schools.
1956 Latín American Institute of Educational Communication (ILCE) UNESCO and Mexico create a regional body for the improvement of education through the application of audiovisual media and resources (posters, slides, acetates, flannel, among others).
1965 University of Wisconsin. USA It implements a telephone correspondence format for training doctors.
1968 Telesecundaria. Mexico. The idea of “teleescoula” arose in Italy, from 1958 to 1966 Mexican education model created with the purpose of imparting secondary education through television broadcasts, in rural or difficult access areas of the Mexican Republic and to reduce illiteracy.
1962 Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) y ARPANET United States. Global network of computers enabled to exchange information between institutions. Later J.C.R. Licklider creates the exclusively military information from anywhere in the country (1969).
1969 Open University of United Kingdom First representative model that offers open university studies, that is, flexibility of time and place.
1972 InterNetworking Working Group.  United States and Norway. Organization in charge of managing the Internet.
1976 Coastline Community College. United States. First virtual campus integrates: telephone, television, radio, records, tapes for courses.
1979 NewsGroups. United States Creation of discussion forums by students.
1981 TCP/IP Definition of the Internet protocol and concept.
1991 World Wide Web Use of hyperlinks formula that allows linking information logically and through networks.
1997 Web Course Tools First LMS for generic use in educational institutions.

In order to better respond to the demands of the student's orientation and guidance, the contributions of emerging audiovisual technologies were gradually introduced into these "correspondence" only courses. During 1830 the communication in the distance began through the telegraph and its Morse codes (1820). In 1876 the Scotsman A. Graham Bell invented the telephone that allowed synchronous verbal communication at a distance. In 1894 the young Italian G. Marconi invented radio and in 1901 the first transatlantic communication by radio was carried out, later in 1920 the first radio station in North America was opened. The teletype of 1910 allowed the sending of written messages at a distance using certain codes and in 1923 Vladimir Zworykin, had the idea of public television as a tool the television and in 1935, made its first regular broadcasts. (García, 1987)

The television courses have been the longest. If we analyze today the large number of contributions of distance education in the world, we will observe that many of them have not yet passed this first generation, being in many of the countries the most popular way of developing distance education, as a specific case in Mexico due to the confinement of COVID-19.

Multimedia distance learning, or in Garrison's terminology, the second generation duringthe end of the sixties (creation of the British Open University), currently experiencing its probable end. Radio and television, media present in most homes, are the insignia of this stage. The written text begins to be supported by other audiovisual resources (audiocassettes, slides, videocassettes, etc.). The telephone is incorporated into most of the actions in this area, to connect the tutor with the students. In this second generation, as the traditional class concept is broken, the possibilities for face-to-face interaction are scarce.

It is important to point out that the concept of distance education predominates.Understood as: educational process in which all or most of the teaching is carried out by someone who does not share the same time and / or space as the student, therefore all or most of the communication between teachers and students takes place through an artificial medium, whether electronic or printed. The design, production and generation of teaching materials are priority elements, leaving second the interaction with the students and between them, they are provable facts of these first two generations of distance education.

The student was an invention of the 16th century; it did not exist in, say, Shakespeare's time. Until then, I was fused into the adult world and there was nothing that could be called childhood in our sense of the word.

Today's child is growing absurdly, because he lives in two worlds and neither of them drives him to grow. Grow; this is our new task, and it is total. Mere instruction is not enough (Mackluham, 1969, p.18).

Mackluham himself describes the absence of a proper didactic structure for the teaching-learning process with the use of new technology, especially when he makes a criticism of the use of television focused on deforming the subject's consciousness; he also mentions the effects of a school without a specific approach to create reflection and awareness in the student:

There is a world of difference between the classroom and the integrated electrical information environment of the modern home. Today's child viewer is tuned to the pitch of “adult” news to the minute: inflation, riots, war, taxes, crime, beauties in bathing suits, and is perplexed when he enters the 19th century environment that still characterizes the world. educational system, with scarce but ordered information and structured by patterns, themes and fragmented and classified programs. It is, of course, an environment very similar to that of any factory with its inventories and assembly lines (Mackluham, 1969, p. 18).

During the years 1969 to 1973, the use of television was implemented in educational systems and with the development of Information and Communication Technologies began, which specifically consists of the manufacture of computer equipment, systems for the operation of equipment and their interconnection, but the most important thing lies in the information systems generated by companies and organizations: products; services; inventories; customer data; specific areas to move products, goods and services. All this gathered in a database, which through communication: messages, notes, posters, notices, among others, generates consumer needs in the subjects.

This new environment is called the new Information and Communication Technologies and defines a new purpose: the use of ICTs in educational systems, which has had an impact since the 1990s. Causing resistance in teachers and short vision of the educational authorities by not investing in resources and supplies.

For his part, the great pedagogue Iván Illich, promoter of many of the educational reforms around the world, in his work "The Un-schooled Society" anticipates the criticism and reflection of the new educational model in schools by proposing the "General characteristics of the new formal educational institutions” which are based on three objectives: a) to provide all those who want it with access to available resources at any time in their lives; b) financing all those who want to share what they know, as well as generating actions that allow finding those who want to learn from them; c) give anyone the opportunity to present their topic for debate to the public.

This educational system must be supported by constitutional guarantees. Learners should not be subjected to a compulsory curriculum, or to discrimination based on the possession or lack of a certificate or diploma. Nor does it oblige the public to maintain, through regressive remuneration, a gigantic professional apparatus of educators and buildings that in fact diminishes the possibilities that the public has to learn the services that the profession is willing to offer to the market. Using modern technology to make free expression, free assembly and a free press universal and, therefore, fully educational… the school is an institution built on the axiom that learning is the result of teaching. And institutional wisdom continues to accept this axiom, despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. " The mood of 1971 is ripe for a major change of direction in search of a hopeful future (Iván Illich, 1985, p. 44.).

This is an important reflection that questions the school system and that summons different education specialists to rethink the characteristics of the new formal educational institutions, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) takes up the idea of ​​rethinking the function of the schools and appoint a special commission led by the former Minister of Education of France and president of the International Commission on the Development of Education, Edgar Faure, in February of 1971 to May of 1972. The members of this commission were: Felipe Herrera (Chile), professor at the University of Chile, former President of the Inter-American Development Bank and former Executive Director of the International Monetary Fund. Abdul-Razzak Kaddoura (Syria), Attaché in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Oxford and member of the Council of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Henri López (People's Republic of the Congo), then Minister of Education and at that time Minister of Foreign Affairs; Arthur V. Petrovski (USSR), Secretary of the Section for Growth Psychology and Physiology, Academy of Pedagogical Sciences; Majid Rahnema (Iran), Former Minister of Higher Education and Science, and former Vice President of the United Nations Economic and Social Council; F. Champion Ward (USA), advisor for international education at the Ford Foundation, and former Dean of Faculty at the University of Chicago. This commission produced the report entitled: Learning to be. The Education of the Future, their criticism focused on the need to implement changes in educational systems in relation to the social context, new technologies and the consideration of informal and non-formal learning that takes place in other contexts outside the school.

Wherever we find a traditional educational system that has stood the test of time and was generally thought to need no more than a few occasional minor improvements, some more or less automatic adjustments, it is currently unleashing a barrage of criticism and suggestions that often go as far as the point of questioning it in its entirety. Some young people now protest more or less openly against the pedagogical models and types of institutions that are imposed on them, although it is not always easy to delimit the influence of this particular phenomenon, with its vague discomfort and flashes of rebellion”. Report of the International Commission for the Development of Education. UNESCO, presented to 130 members in the fall of 1972 in Paris. First page text of the Preamble that defines four central postulates (Faure, 2013, p. xxi):

  1. Existence of an international community ... (which) is expressed by the community of aspirations, problems and tendencies and by convergence towards the same destiny.
  2. The belief in democracy, conceived as the right of each man to fully realize himself and to participate in the construction of his own future.
  3. Development aims at the complete unfolding of man in all his richness and in the complexity of his expressions and commitments.
  4. Education, to form this complete man ... can only be global and permanent.

Education extends throughout the entire life trajectory of the human being. It is incorrect to define it only from school, or to be linked to the classroom circumstance. The education process must be defined as a multidimensional network, viewed in multiple directions, with heterogeneous and changing components. The human being is an apprentice at any time and circumstance. Many of the learnings have been accomplished outside of the school system. We can learn on a trip, at work, in the family circle, as members of a social group, through social media, but mainly through the reflection carried out by the subject himself. The context of a learning society is superimposed on the limiting concept of the schooled society. Given this reflection, it is highlighted that the next step is not to close the schools but to reflect on the limitations of the traditional school and transform its functions focused on three specific dimensions: the educational functions assumed by the institutions of production and service; informal education provided by more or less organized groups, and individual learning-teaching based on motivation and self-learning.

At the beginning of the seventies the world was visualized as a global village (Mackluham, 1969.) But this description falls short if the innumerable links generated between nations are considered, which give rise to a network in the field of education. transnational organization that brings together international organizations to develop indicators and strategies for the design of educational policies, the analysis of changes in ideals and thinking of young people who move quickly from one border to another and give rise to an exchange of ideas, knowledge, technology and values ​​on a global scale.

They were generated; for example, multinational agreements, such as the Andrés Bello Agreement, which establishes the bases for regional programs of studies, equivalence and innovation. The transnational network allows nations to design their own multidimensional networks. In turn, these would become the structure of the first. Thus, the diversity of national designs and the interrelation between the different countries would be promoted.

Educational context in 2020 and Virtual Pedagogy.

The reflections, by Ivan Illich, Edgar Faure and Mackluham, acquire relevance given the events of the confinement by COVID-19. They invite us to reflect on the futures of education. The total closure of many schools around the world to avoid contagion and the spread of the coronavirus have generated, by the educational authorities, the design of specific actions to monitor the activities of students at home, as an example: programs on television; broadcast of talks on the radio; print exercise booklets for students; instructions by email; videoconferences by teachers; the use of Facebook, WhatsApp, among others networks to send assignments to students to maintain the continuity of teaching.

There are many different actions that the educational authorities have taken, such as, the creativity and spontaneity of many teachers that must be recognized. However, the contingency imposed by the coronavirus proved the deficiency in infrastructure (report published by UNESCO, 2020, p. 114) in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean; Many schools still do not have electricity. 40% of students in basic education schools in Mexico do not have a computer at home, or at school. The decision issued by the educational authority to start classes on television in September does not define the way in which teachers will carry out their intervention with students. Some supervisors, directors and teachers decided, on their own, to hire Google Classrom services, but there is a lack of articulation of the pedagogical processes to design classes in virtual classrooms.

We must analyze the results of the hasty decisions that had to be taken during the pandemic to face the continuity of educational services that have had caused to improvised the use of digital tools: platforms, applications for videoconferencing and other internet materials, it is important to point out that the teaching intervention has been disorganized and without a clear pedagogical foundation. Such a situation motivates us to highlight the didactic and pedagogical concepts that must be considered in the use of digital tools and allows us to plan the classes that are taught online.

Conceptualization of Online Education.

The concept of online education arises from the term e-learning, in the same way as the terms: e-mail, e-commerce, e-business. It derives from the expression “electronic learning”and its application to education is based on the specific field of information and communication technologies, which incorporate the use of the internet into information systems. learning management and incorporate different multimedia for teaching, as a new strategy to achieve learning.

Information and communication technologies refer to the great variety and quantity of tools that were born from the first LMS Web Course Tools, which gives rise to a new way of organizing the learning management processes of a company, institution or school. Its implementation arises from the use of the internet, and the different formats of information presentation: web pages, images, audio, video, interactive elements (all of these in digital formats), which have allowed the development of new strategies and didactic materials that they provide elements to achieve an effective teaching and learning system. On the other hand, the different communication tools should also be considered: chat, e-mail, forums, wikis, blogs, messaging, IP telephone, teleconference and those that are still appearing and are in development (IP television, for example).

Digital tools and the use of the internet are directed towards learning, both in face-to-face education and distance education; considering that they must include a clear, precise, coherent and planned teaching strategy. Its principles and foundations must conform to the pedagogical theories of teaching and learning, considering that learning management systems, commonly referred to as "technological platforms" integrate essential actions for the application and implementation of content, exercises, activities and evaluations in the processes of teaching and learning. Online education has been a controversial term, in one hand, because it tends to put technology at the center and in the other hand, because it raises a new conceptualization of learning, that is, a different teaching strategy to achieve learning, we will define this new strategy as Virtual Pedagogy.

Just as the appearance of books generated the definition of a new pedagogical model; Today, computers, tablets and mobile phones must build their own pedagogical model, books and hardware are the tools used as instruments in the educational process. Learning and teaching will continue to be defined, essentially, as human activities.The evolution of computer software, its schemes and combinations with the media, integrated into the internet. They have generated a strong presence in various environments of daily life, not only work, scientific or in production. Currently there are software applications for different environments and activities, education and pedagogy are no exception; In addition to this, the media that has emerged under the standards of the internet have made the way of living and acting is transforming. In such a way that they can be considered as necessary tools for education and learning.

Definition of Virtual Pedagogy in the new context of online education

We speak of virtual pedagogy by referring to the concept of pedagogical model, since they constitute an interpretation of the conception of the world and the ideologies that frame intellectual life and the generation of philosophical and scientific knowledge in each era and in each historically established society. The model is an analytical instrument to describe, organize and interpret the differences that have always concerned man in educational processes. The essential aspects that we must take into account and that we must respond to are:

  • What kind of person are we interested in forming?
  • With what technical-methodological strategies?
  • Through what purposes and contents?
  • What should evolve in the training process?
  • Who dominates or directs the process, the student or the teacher?

These essential aspects form categories or aspects that constitute variables that are articulated and interrelated in each pedagogical theoretical construction, giving rise to multiple dynamic combinations that make up the pedagogical models which are characterized by defining the following elements: goal; teacher-student relationship; educational and teaching methods; purposes-contents and individual and social development (Flórez, 1994, p. 175).

Models are not rigid schematics or divided static structures. They must be assimilated as open systems, of flows and internal and permanent interaction, whose intensity and direction would always have to be determined in each specific pedagogical discourse and whose functioning, in educational "praxis", would have to be specified each time under the historical social conditions in the present context and from the analysis of the pedagogy of everyday life.

The Cognitive Pedagogical Model that evolves from the traditional and behaviorist models, has been defined as developmental or neoliberal, we define its structure with the following elements. (Flórez, 1994, p.188)

  • Goal: access to the higher level of intellectual development according to the biosocial conditions of each subject.
  • Teacher-student relationship: where the teacher is a facilitator-stimulator of experiences.
  • Method: based on the creation of environments and experiences of consolidation according to each stage, the child is a "researcher".
  • Contents: based on experiences that facilitate access to higher development structures, the child builds his own learning contents.
  • Development: progressive, sequential to qualitative and hierarchically differentiated mental structures.

Continuing with the same conceptual proposal as Flórez (1994), we propose the definition of the Virtual Pedagogical Model based on the UNESCO initiative (2020) that calls for adding ideas to define the futures of education, described as follows:

  • Goal: learn to convert to transform the future of humanity and the planet.
  • Teacher-student relationship: both subjects who try to provoke dialogues about knowledge and learning.
  • Method: autonomy and independence, a citizen trait of every society that seeks a humanistic approach in its educational project, to responsibly assume a conscious and free attitude to the current problems of our environment.
  • Purposes-Contents: key learnings and knowledge in light of the enormous challenges and opportunities.
  • Development: promoting learning opportunities for all throughout life.

Taking into account that the main element that makes the creation of a pedagogical model viable is the curriculum, from which the different study plans are built and agreed upon in correspondence to each of the different educational levels. The curriculum is defined as an instrument that contains the expected results of education and the training processes that are defined for students; the specification of the resources that allow to achieve the educational purposes; definition of the foundations of the educational act; Determination of the evaluation processes and mainly the study programs with their contents and learning activities.

These curricular elements prescribe, guide, base and regulate the entire teaching and learning process, but we must recognize the essential part that makes the curricular project viable and these elements correspond to the intervention of the teacher and materialize with the didactic planning. With implementation of the curricular project, we refer to the process of execution, development, concretion, operation or implementation of what is proposed, raised or determined in the design of the curriculum. For Ibarrola (2012) the notion of curriculum cannot be limited only to the idea of ​​objectives in a document or in a series of prescriptive, guiding and articulating documents of the school institution; it is necessary to define it from the teacher's intervention, with what happens with him in his implementation in the framework of the tools and infrastructure of the school institution. Teaching intervention, in the face of confinement due to the pandemic, has been minimized and the spontaneous actions that the teaching staff have taken personally have generated lags in the pedagogical processes. The way in which the teacher has tried to carry out his approach to the teaching processes in what we can call the virtual classroom, has been carried out without an adequate strategy in the use of digital tools, for example thinking that the zoom tool designed for video conferencing use; the sending of messages by Facebook or WhatsApp covers the learning processes in an integral way, it would be a mistake to accept this postulate, since it refers us to the conceptualization of the teaching of the process limited by the traditional pedagogical model, which is only based on the transmission front of knowledge, without generating the active participation of the student, and without involving it in processes that allow the construction of knowledge.


Figure 1. Referents of Virtual Pedagogy. Own elaboration
*Strategies: Combination of a series of procedures (teacher work, student actions, handling of materials and resources, selection of bibliography, group organization, etc.) that are organized into activities to achieve learning.

The curricular implementation with the use of technological tools must consider the characteristics and conditions of the teacher that can facilitate the implementation of what is proposed in the design: teacher profile, training in the use of digital communication tools, design of activities in the management platforms for the administration of learning, the correct use of videoconferences and their thought about educational approaches, among other elements; but we must also refer to the characteristics of the students that can facilitate or impede what is proposed in the curricular project and help them to achieve the learning that is proposed. Among the characteristics that can be defined, the main one should be: that teachers and students have access to the internet, that they have the necessary equipment to connect, that they have their own and adequate space to remain seated for several hours to carry out learning activities that are proposed in the implementation of the curriculum.

The interests and expectations of the students or the perception they have about their role in the educational process carried out with the use of the internet and digital tools must be considered. Thus, the curricular implementation must focus on the educational practice that is configured in the school context called virtual classroom, which is characterized by synchronous and asynchronous communication, interactions and processes that are established between the different users of social networks, educational content and methods of virtual pedagogy.

The virtual classroom is not only a message on social networks or a brilliant videoconference, it must be an integrating space that includes texts, messages, books, descriptive graphics, exercises for learning, specific places for interaction and conversation by the students, students to complete their ideas and discover new content that promotes their learning. The virtual classroom must be a space in which all students, all ideas and all materials that enable learning converge.

The implementation of the curriculum, in the virtual classroom, must be based on the conceptualization of teaching, understood as a transformed professional activity, As all social practice in a significant way, with the impact of the conditions of the development of information technology and communication technologies, considering that it has gone from a fluctuating dynamic between an empirical and isolated practice, which is perfected with experience, to being considered as a practice closely linked to intellectual processes, supported by pedagogical didactic training and mainly in the socialization of teaching.

In the context of educational institutions, teaching has diversified due to the fulfillment of increasingly complex academic tasks, which require specific training of teachers not only for mastering new didactic strategies, but also for the appropriation of theories and research methods that allow them to advance in parallel pedagogical and disciplinary aspects, as well as in the use of digital tools in the teaching and learning processes.

For their part, the teacher is faced with serious commitments that imply his participation in the recent demands raised by the political strategies of incorporation to international standards, which require him: mastery of group work techniques; knowledge for the planning of classroom work, as well as the management of strategies to achieve student learning using digital tools.

As a professional exercise in education, with the use of digital tools, teaching becomes a practice supported by reflective and purposeful planning of teaching to achieve the design and implementation of strategies for learning, an activity that must be carried out by a group of teachers; This work of reflection and propositions in the group of teachers is called teaching, and its main action consists of being the articulator between theory and social praxis.

The work of the teacher in the face-to-face model has been characterized by being individualistic, the decisions concerning their practice are of a one-person nature, beginning and ending in each classroom, workshop or laboratory. In virtual teaching systems and with the use of digital tools, the teacher intends to move towards the conceptualization of group, interdisciplinary and collegiate work, to transform itself into socio-interactive teaching, which goes beyond single-person and simple activities acquiring knowledge. It is a conceptualization, in the process of recognition, with a complex activity that requires an understanding of the educational phenomenon for its exercise (Renteria, 2015, p. 217 and 218).

Therefore, we will define the interactive socio-teaching of educational institutions in the online education process, since it is an approach that seeks institutional scope, where to achieve it, it is required not only the convinced participation of the teaching staff or academic body, but first of all the political will of the governmental and administrative authorities of each geographic community, based on a solid vision of joint work, and supported by two axes: evaluation and continuous improvement processes.

The will to transcend is the commitment assumed by this group, defined as: socio-interactive teaching, made up of the academic community, which is based on a common ideal and is aimed at scientific, technical and cultural objectives, generating the participation of its members, who know and respect each other. This academic community is made up of educational authorities, teachers and students, integrated into a virtual pedagogical model and interacting in the virtual classroom.

It is of the greatest urgency that our educational institutions realize that a civil war is now being waged between these environments, created by means other than the printed word. The classroom carries out a vital struggle for survival with the enormously pervasive "outside" world created by the new media. Education must move away from instruction, leave its cliches and move towards discovery, probing, exploration and recognition of the language of forms. Today, young people reject goals. They want to play roles ... R-O-L-E-S. That is, total commitment. They do not want fragmentary, specialized goals or positions(Mackluham, 1969, p.100).

The teaching act implies to always keeping the learner in mind, since teaching is an, instrumental, transitive and interactive transmission activity, which produces an effect on the learner, through the dynamic, interpersonal and intentional relationship that occurs between teacher and student, regarding a scientific, technological, cultural content and the responsibility of transforming our environment.

Metodología

Resultados

Discusión

The beginning of distance education lacked both a permanent space for communication and interaction, as well as the achievement of learning with greater assertiveness. The appearance of the internet has fostered that space that allows permanent communication, as well as facilitates the incorporation of a significant number of educational resources: libraries, newspaper libraries, videoconferences and many others; that are identified by teachers and incorporated into a space, the virtual classroom, which makes it possible to classify content, determine skills and abilities to develop, and mainly allows the teacher to design strategies that facilitate students interacting with the object study and that, according to the time and pace of progress in readings and exercises, they manage to appropriate this knowledge and develop their skills.

Given the current scenario, it is necessary to train teachers in the use of digital tools with a pedagogical approach, to avoid repeating the events of the 1970s when various educational institutions were built and a teaching plan was improvised to provide immediate attention to students enrolled throughout the country, without first disclosing the curricular project with the teachers, defining the objectives of the institution, rethinking the objectives of the subjects and above all without defining the pedagogical model that supports curricular projects; andbrought with it a population of teachers without pedagogical training that would enable them to perform the teaching function.

Today, to incorporate teachers into online education and the use of new technologies, they must be trained not only in the use of digital tools, but also in the pedagogical didactic foundations that allow the use and assertive design of strategies that facilitate the development of competences in the student and mainly the achievement of learning that allows it to transform humanity and the planet. Virtual pedagogy must focus on learning for a very simple reason: growth, development and poverty reduction depend on the knowledge and skills that people acquire, a number of years they spend in a classroom.

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