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Delectus - Scientific Journal, Inicc-Perú - [ISSN: 2663-1148]




Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): January-June [Edit closure: 01/01/2021]

RECEIVED: 02/11/2020 | ACCEPTED: 28/12/2020 | PUBLISHED: 01/01/2021

Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)

Ñahui Rojas, H. F. (2021). Morphological Characteristics and Swim Time in Publishers Selected from the Lima Regatas Club. Delectus, 4(1), 119-128.

Morphological characteristics and swimming time in selected puberty of the Regatas Club, Lima



Objective: To determine the existence of significant influence of morphological characteristics on swimming time of sportsmen between 11 and 13 years old. Methods: The sample was conformed by 20 puberty swimmers from the selection of "Lima" Regatas Club. For the collection of the morphological data, the protocol that obeys the standards established by the International Society for Advancement in Kinenatropometry (ISAK) was used and for the taking of the swimming times a manual chronometer of Robic brand was used with 1/100 second, precision at 10 hours. Results: There are significant differences between the morphological characteristics of men and women. In men, a significant correlation was found between chronological age with swimming time and swimming speed. In any case, no correlation was found between any morphological characteristic and swimming time in the pubescent. Conclusions: Morphological characteristics do not influence swimming time in puberty (11-13 years) in the "Lima" Regatas Club selection.

Keywords: Morphological characteristics; swimming; swimming time.

Sporting swimming can mean, in the life of the young person, a very rich stage in experiences: continuous confrontation with the aquatic environment, as well as enjoyment of these experiences, training efforts, joy for successes, disappointment for failures, new friendships (Wilke & Madsen, 1990). In this sense, we must emphasize the importance of the conditions that will allow that individual to achieve optimal development in this sport.

Morphology is the part of biology that deals with the form of organic beings and the modifications or transformations they undergo. Based on this statement, the characteristics of body shape, in addition to the absolute size, required by each sport and which allow optimal performance can be described by morphological proportions, this means, the relationship of body parts to each other or between them (Abernethy et al. 1997; Norton & Olds, 1996). These morphological values can be determined by anthropometry (Mazza, 2003).

In swimming, the aim is to cover a certain distance in the shortest time possible keeping the body in a horizontal position, therefore, a greater height and proportionally long upper limbs offer advantages (Norton & Olds, 2002).

One of the most important and difficult problems to solve in the field of sports science is the difficulty of establishing in a timely manner the extent to which the physicist contributes to sports performance (Carter, 2003). Part of this problem can be solved through kinenatropometry by relating the physique to the athlete's performance. In this way, some of the knowledge needed to predict sports performance that a swimmer may achieve can be obtained (Abernethy et al., 1997).

Because morphology is one of the properties that is genetically conditioned since it is very little modifiable with training (Matveev, 2001), it is only possible to modify body fat levels or muscle mass levels, we must take it into account when we refer to the intention of obtaining better swimmers. Furthermore, there is a great deal of evidence showing body differences between athletes in different sports, or within the same sport, but in different events (Carter, 1982; Carter, 1984; Carter, 1985; Carter, 1994; Rienzi et al., 1995; Rivera & Avella, 1992).

Thus, among the factors that influence sports performance, morphology is included as a means of assessing the evolution and development of the athlete. García Bataller (1999), divides into 5 sections to be evaluated: anthropometric measurements, evaluation of general and specific physical condition, technical and psychological evaluation. Later on, Arellano and de la Fuente (2000), classify them into: physical characteristics (weight, height and length of body segments), physiological characteristics (resistance, reaction speed, strength and flexibility), psychological characteristics and skill levels. Saavedra et. al. (2002), builds a valuation battery called Multidimensional Battery for the Evaluation of Talents in Swimming (Saavedra, Escalante and Rodriguez 2001) in which six sections stand out: valuation of social and sports background; somatic valuation; valuation of specific physical condition; valuation of technique; multidimensional valuation. Therefore, morphology is considered an important factor to be taken into account in the final performance of the athlete (Ross et al., 1988).

Now, we have to determine at what point from puberty these morphological characteristics can be taken into account for the achievement of a better swimming time and thus the identification of future sports talents in swimming. Boulgakova (1990) made a set of morphological and functional analyses of swimmers differentiating their characteristics according to different swimming styles and distances. Studies of the maturation process in swimmers have shown that they have higher averages than the rest of the population, differences between both sexes and with respect to other sports specialties (Damsgaard et al., 2001; Benefice et al., 1990) show advanced sexual and skeletal maturation (Malina, 1994); and from 13 years old in girls and 12 years old in girls an important number of these variables can be used as a strategy for the identification of talents (Blanksby et al, 1994); Siders et al. (1993) on the contrary indicate that measurements in body composition and somatotype can be a predictor of development only in the female gender, not obtaining significant correlations for the male gender.

There are data on the morphological characteristics of athletes in some countries of the world, especially in developed countries, but in developing countries like Peru, which is in a stage of much intention and effort to advance in scientific-sports issues, there is a lack of published studies and data on the national sports reality. This shows a deficit in the development of more accurate strategies for achieving objectives in the various national sports. That is why this study is presented, which aims to determine whether there is a significant influence of morphological characteristics on the swimming time of athletes between 11 and 13 years of age. This study becomes pertinent at this time, since it will provide data from a sports sector, in this case swimming, so as to be able to continue developing this sport in an increasingly efficient manner.

The sample was 20 swimmers from the "Lima" Regatta Club, 09 females and 11 males. The ages of the swimmers ranged from 11 to 13 years, all belonging to the children's category B of the aforementioned club. Swimmers who had at least one year of regular training with the team were included in this study. The study was conducted with the prior consent of the club's Technical Swimming Directorate, and authorization was obtained from the parents and the swimmers themselves.

Table 1.
General characteristics.
  Men Women
Sample Size 11 09
Age (years) 12.5 ± 0.7 12.8 ± 0.8
Size (cm) 155.5 ± 4.6 162.7 ± 5.0
Weight (kg) 46.3 ± 6.5 50.8 ± 8.5
Source: Own elaboration

Morphological Characteristics

The protocol used for data collection follows the standards established by the International Society for Advancement in Kinenatropometry (ISAK) (Marfell-Jhones, 2001; Norton & Olds, 1996), including for each athlete, in addition to the variables, body mass (muscle weight, fat weight, bone weight); height; sitting height; wingspan; lengths (acromio - dactylium, acromio - radial, radial - style, ilio-spinal - ground, ilio-spinal - tibial, tibial - malleolar, hand and foot) bone diameter (biacromial) and subcutaneous adipose tissue folds (subscapular, tricipital and mid-calf).

The data obtained, in total 16, were collected by trained personnel, who had Level I certification, granted by ISAK, and therefore had a technical measurement error within acceptable margins for this type of study (5% for skin folds and 2% for the rest of the anthropometric measurements).

The evaluation instruments used included: digital balance (Tanita), with precision of 100g; height gauge with precision of 1 mm; anthropometer, segmometer and tape measure (Rosscraft), with precision of 1 mm; skin fold gauge (Rosscraft), with precision of 0.5 mm.

Swimming time

Physiological activation was performed prior to the test, which consisted of active stretching (of extremities and trunk) outside the pool for 15 minutes. Then 400 m. of freestyle swimming with pulses between 160 and 180 per minute.

The following criteria were considered for the different moments in the time taking

Starting time (St): Time from the starting signal until the swimmer's head passes a reference located 10 m from the starting wall in 50 m pools and 15 m from the starting wall in 25 m pools. (Haljand, 1992).

Swimming time (St): It is determined by the distance of the test and the average speed over that distance. (Hay, 1985). The average speed of the swimmer is equal to the product of two factors: the cycle length (Cl) and the cycle frequency (Cf). (Thayer and Hay, 1984).

Average Cycle Frequency (Cf): Is the number of arm cycles (c) performed by the swimmer in the unit of time. It is expressed in Hz, although we coaches operate in cycles per minute, being that the information we transmit to the swimmer.

Nº of cycles counted
Cf= ---------------------------------------------------------------
Time invested in the N° of cycles counted

Average Cycle Length (Cl): Is the horizontal space traveled forward by the swimmer in each complete cycle of arms. (Pai, Hay and Wilson, 1984).

Space traveled (m)
Cl = -----------------------------------------
Nº of cycles counted

Turning Time (Tt): From a kinematic perspective, it is the time that passes from the moment the swimmer's head passes through a reference located 7.5 m from the turning wall, until the head passes again through the same reference after making the turn. (Arellano, De Aymerich, Sánchez, & Rivera, 1993). The time obtained is broken down into the approach phase and the separation phase.

Time of arrival (Ta): It is the time from the moment the head passes by a reference located 5 or 7.5 meters from the wall of arrivals depending on the size of the glass, until the swimmer contacts the wall (Haljand, 1992).

The procedure is as follows: The timekeeper moves parallel to the direction of the swim taking time at the references located with respect to the exit:

  • 10m: The output time and output speed are obtained.
  • 20m: By subtracting the T10 from the T20, we obtain a time in 10 meters without any exit or turning influences so we get the average swimming speed of the first length.
  • 25m: It gives us information about the first part of the test and subtracting T25 - T20 gives us the time of the approach phase of the turn.
  • 30m: T30 - T25 gives us the time of the separation phase of the turn and T30 - T20 gives us the time of the complete turn and therefore the turn speed.
  • 45m: T45 - T30 we obtain a swimming time of 15 meters without influences of exits or turns that allows us to determine the real average speed of swimming of the 2nd partial of the test.
  • 50m: Gives us the total time of duration of the test. T50 - T45 gives us the arrival time in 5 meters and the arrival speed.

To take each time a manual chronometer of Robic brand was used. With the following characteristics: 1/100 second precision at 10 hours, memory files according to the tests, selective memory erasing, display of intermediate and split times among other functions.

Statistical Analysis

The normality of the distribution of each of the variables was verified through the Shapiro - Wilk statistical test. Descriptive statistics were made to determine means and minimum and maximum standard deviations of morphological characteristics and results in the speed test. Student's t was used to find differences in anthropometric measurements between men and women. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to identify the contribution of morphological characteristics to the total time obtained in the swimming test. In all tests, a significance less than or equal to 0.05 was considered. The program SPSS 15 was used for these statistical analyses.

In table 2 we show the results obtained in the anthropometric measurements, which show the differences between the morphological characteristics of the male and female sex.

Table 2.
Differences in morphological characteristics between the female sex and the male sex

Morphological Characteristics Male Sex (n =11) Female Sex (n =09)
  Media ± DS Intervalo Media ± DS Intervalo
Size (cm) 155.5 ± 4.6 149   - 164 162.7 ± 5.0 156  - 171.5
Weight (kg) 46.3   ± 6.5 36.6  -  56.4 50.8   ± 8.5 40.4 - 70.3
Wingspan (cm) 159.5 ± 5.1 152   - 167 164    ± 5.5 154  -  172  
Sitting size (cm) 80.9   ± 2.0 77.2  -  84.7 85.2   ± 3.3 81.5 -  93
Muscle Weight (kg) 19.5   ± 3.3 15     -  23.3 21.8   ± 3.4 18.5 -  29
Weight of fat (kg) 10.4   ± 4.4 6.6    -  18.8 12.0   ± 5.8 7.2   -  26.7
Bone weight (kg) 10.2   ± 1.1 8.2    -  11.5 10.5   ± 1.6 8.9   -  14.1
Length acromio - dactylium (cm) 69.7   ± 2.2 66.3  -  73.3 72.9   ± 2.9 68     -   78
Length acromio - radial (cm) 30.7   ± 1.3 29     -  32.5 30.3   ± 1.3 29     -   33
Radial length - style (cm) 32.5   ± 8.5 21     -  40 23.3   ± 0.7 22.5  -   25
Ilio-spinal length - ground (cm) 88.7   ± 3.9 84.5  -  95.5 93.1   ± 3.2 89.3  -   98
Ilio-spinal length - tibial (cm) 47.5   ± 3.1 43.5  -  52 47.6   ± 4.4 39     -   55
Tibial - malleolar length (cm) 34.2   ± 1.6 32.3  -  38 33.5   ± 4.8 23.5  -   42
Hand length (cm) 17.4   ± 0.9 16.1  -  18.9 18.5   ± 0.8 17.1  -  19.8
Length of foot (cm) 23.6   ± 1.0 22.1  -   25 24.1   ± 0.8 23     -  25.7
Biacromial diameter (cm) 34      ± 1.6 30.4  -  35.7 35.1   ± 2.1 32.6  -  38.8
Source:Own elaboration

In table 3 the data are averages (±, SD), minimum and maximum values (intervals), and correlation Pearson (r) * = (p < 0.05) ** = (p < 0.01) is shown the correlation coefficient analysis - Pearson (r) for men, which showed that only significant correlation was found p < 0.05 (*) in chronological age with swimming time and p < 0.01 (**) in swimming time and swimming speed. No other correlation was found in any other case.

Table 3. Anthropometric parameters, and their relation to the 50 m freestyle swimming time in crawl mode in puberty swimmers, male gender.
Variable Average (± DS) Minimum Maximum Correlation of Pearson (r) with Swimming Time in 50 m.
Age (years) 12.5 ± 0.7 11.7 13.5 -0.630*
Size (cm.) 155.5 ± 4.6 149 164 -0,486
Weight (Kg.) 46.3   ± 6.5 36.6 56.4 -0,167
Swimming speed 1.48 ± 0.16 1.13 1.68 -0,951**
Wingspan (cm.) 159.5 ± 5.1 152 167 -0,444
Sitting size (cm.) 80.9   ± 2.0 77.2 84.7 -0,281
Muscle weight (Kg.) 19.5   ± 3.3 15 23.3 -0,358
Fat weight (Kg.) 10.4   ± 4.4 6.6 18.8 0,284
Bone weight (Kg.) 10.2   ± 1.1 8.2 11.5 -0,156
Length acromio - dactylium (cm.) 69.7   ± 2.2 66.3 73.3 -0,243
Acromio - radial length (cm.) 30.7   ± 1.3 29 32.5 -0,268
Radial length - style (cm.) 32.5   ± 8.5 21 40 0,494
Ilio-spinal length - ground (cm.) 88.7   ± 3.9 84.5 95.5 -0,348
Ilio-spinal length - tibial (cm.) 47.5   ± 3.1 43.5 52 -0,362
Tibial - malleolar length (cm.) 34.2   ± 1.6 32.3 38 -0,037
Hand length (cm.) 17.4   ± 0.9 16.1 18.9 -0,380
Foot length (cm.) 23.6   ± 1.0 22.1 25 -0,337
Biacromial diameter (cm.) 34      ± 1.6 30.4 35.7 -0,569
Source: Own elaboration

In table 4 the data are averages (±, SD), minimum and maximum values (intervals), and Pearson (r) correlation * = (p < 0.05) ** = (p < 0.01), the correlation coefficient analysis - Pearson (r) for women is shown, which showed that only p < 0.01 (**) significant correlation was found in the swimming time with the swimming speed. No other correlation was found in any other case.

Table 4. Anthropometric parameters and their relation with the performance in 50 m. freestyle swimming in the crawl mode in puberty swimmers, gender.
Variable Average (± DS) Minimum Maximum Correlation of Pearson (r) with Swimming Time in 50 m.
Age (years) 12.8 ± 0.8 11.11 13.3 -0.474
Size (cm.) 162.7 (± 5.0) 149 164 -0,476
Weight (Kg.) 50.8   (± 8.5) 36.6 56.4 0,113
Swimming speed 1.38  (± 0.1) 1.26 1.54 -0.899**
Wingspan (cm.) 164    (± 5.5) 152 167 -0,327
Sitting size (cm.) 85.2   (± 3.3) 77.2 84.7 -0,370
Muscle weight (Kg.) 21.8   (± 3.4) 15 23.3 0,067
Fat weight (Kg.) 12.0   (± 5.8) 6.6 18.8 0,302
Bone weight (Kg.) 10.5   (± 1.6) 8.2 11.5 -0,120
Length acromio - dactylium (cm.) 72.9   (± 2.9) 66.3 73.3 -0,401
Acromio - radial length (cm.) 30.3   (± 1.3) 29 32.5 0,403
Radial length - style (cm.) 23.3   (± 0.7) 21 40 -0,485
Ilio-spinal length - ground (cm.) 93.1   (± 3.2) 84.5 95.5 -0,382
Ilio-spinal length - tibial (cm.) 47.6   (± 4.4) 43.5 52 -0,593
Tibial - malleolar length (cm.) 33.5   (± 4.8) 32.3 38 -0,447
Hand length (cm.) 18.5   (± 0.8) 16.1 18.9 -0,492
Foot length (cm.) 24.1   (± 0.8) 22.1 25 0,187
Biacromial diameter (cm.) 35.1   (± 2.1) 30.4 35.7 -0,026
Source: Own elaboration

The findings in the present study on morphological differences between pubertal ladies and men allowed us to carry out the study by sex. By verifying possible differences between the morphological characteristics of ladies and men it was found that, in height, wingspan, sitting height, lengths such as acromio - dactylium, radial - style, ilio-spinal - ground, and hand length there were significant differences.

The main findings of this study are that morphological characteristics at these ages do not play a leading role in swimming time. We have found, through the analysis of the Pearson (r) correlation coefficient, that when we analyzed the data of the swimmers it did not show any correlation between morphological characteristics and swimming time or speed. The results of the present study contrast with those obtained by Osorio in 2009 in which he indicates that height and hand diameter have a high correlation with swimming time in males between 10 and 13 years old. (Osorio, et al., 2009). According to the results of this study, the best swimming times of pubertal swimmers are not a function of their morphological characteristics.

Through the present study we do not deny the influence of morphological characteristics in swimming time in all categories, however, we determined, by the results found, that these characteristics do not influence a better swimming time in puberty (11 to 13 years) of the Regatas Lima club.

There are significant differences between the morphological characteristics of males and females in pubertal swimmers (11 to 13 years old) from the "Lima" Regatas Club In individuals of both sexes, a correlation was found between swimming time and swimming speed.

Morphological characteristics have no correlation with swimming time in pubertal swimmers (11 to 13 years old) of both sexes from the Regatas Club "Lima".

A significant correlation was found between chronological age and swimming time in males, it means, the older the better the swimming time.

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