Vol. 4 No. 2 (2021): July-December [Edit closure: 01/07/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Rentería Castro, E. (2021). Virtual Pedagogy. New proposal for a free textbook design. Delectus, 4(2), 21-33. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i2.139
The purpose of this article is to provide a basis for the use of hypertext in free textbooks, in response to the proposal to redesign the content and images of basic education books. For this purpose, it is considered important to make the historical review of the use of books in primary education, where the elements of a political and ideological order stand out more as opposed to the interests of a pedagogical and didactic order. We will consider the year 1921 as the beginning with the printing of the classical readings, a period where it is not mandatory to use a single textbook; We will review the obligatory and free nature of the textbook, concluding with the analysis of the books in the years 2010 to 2020, proposing the use of textbooks in digital format supporting the predictive vision of Marshall McLuhan with the description of the media as an extension of man.Keywords: free textbook; educational reforms; reading; writing.
The General Directorate of Educational Materials of Mexico has initiated a project called redesign of the contents of the basic education textbook, the methodology that it proposes consists of transcending the monological writing to the political and pedagogical implications of the design of educational materials from a character dialogical, generating a regulation to approach the discourse of polyphony within each text; 2,650 participants responded to the call , of which 250 are interns, 1,032 have a bachelor's degree, 1,082 have a master's degree, 283 have doctoral studies and 3 have postdoctoral studies; who will work together to provide philosophical reflections linguistic and aesthetic that allow each word, each text is built on the concepts of dialogism and otherness in the thought of Mikhail Bakhtin; which focus on a conceptualization of the act with the being, responsibility, consciousness with the social and political environment in axiological contrast between the self and the other, which describe the real world of the ethical act not as something abstract, but as moments of structuring and concrete disposition defined as: “I-for-me, another-for-me and I-for-another . All the values of real life and culture are distributed around these main existential points of the real world of the ethical act: the scientific values, the aesthetic values, the political values (the ethical and the social ones included) and, finally, the values. religious. All space-time values and semantic content are structured around these central emotional and volitional moments: I, another, I-for another” (Bakhtin, 1997, p. 61). For the Russian philologist, the objective of the human sciences is to be expressive and speaking, its reality is the text and the meaningful is what is spoken. The unity of the Bakhtinian scheme is delimited by the ethical, aesthetic, and cognitive reality that a certain work entail. The act, inherent to each of the three instances, belongs to the intellectual and responsible sphere of the human being, oscillating between the language of a literary work (read as a textbook) and the external language that seeks meanings.
Interesting proposal that motivates our interest in making a brief review of the main historical moments in the development and design of free textbooks in Mexico, beginning with the work of Vasconcelos (1922), who defines reading as a fundamental element to train critical and purposeful beings.
Vasconcelos, the crusade of books and the formation of a new Mexican culture
Since the creation of the National Free Textbook Commission, the general influx of works and authors concerned with generating readers has been interrupted, the educational authority has considered that textbooks for basic education are free and compulsory, but before mentioning the historical events that show this fact, it is important to recognize the scope in the proposal of José Vasconcelos, founder of libraries, editor of classic books and founder of the same Ministry of Public Education.
During the 1920s (last century) the Mexican publishing industry had moments of great instability, coupled with the years when the economic crisis generated by the movement of the Mexican Revolution, there were no sales, and there was also no potential market for readers. Libraries were few and far between and most functioned more as warehouses or bookstores than as places to promote reading. Vasconcelos conceives that the most important thing in a country is reading, to achieve this it was necessary to have books to read and reading centers; For him, the practical library where there were information and learning books that collect incunabula and rare books is of greater interest. Therefore, the construction of libraries in each municipality was a priority, but it was necessary to have large libraries in Mexico City. Vasconcelos was aware of the importance of housing in the National Library in its premises of the old Church of San Agustin, where despite all efforts the project was not within the reach of the treasury resources, so the National Library was a frustrated project and there was to continue the headquarters in the streets of Uruguay and Isabel Catolica until 1979 when it was transferred to the National Autonomous University of Mexico.
Vasconcelos created two important libraries specialized the Iberoamerican works on culture, history and Latin American reality housed on one side of the Secretariat and the other was the library Miguel Cervantes Saavedra dedicated to literature; This was housed in a new building on Calle San Fernando on the corner of Heroes, Colonia Guerrero. For Vasconcelos non s read or what is done in public establishments utopia of an educated man of a good reader is that all the houses of citizens should have books and particularly those whose message and content were universal , undoubtedly the primary schools it benefited from the edition of classic books, despite the onslaught of what publishers and they did not understand what é was forced children to read classic books, that this was an unfair competition of graphic workshops of the nation, to industry editorial. José Vasconcelos faced the attack of his detractors and always insisted that a reading people would demand more works and they would benefit from the greater consumption of books. Vasconcelos published fundamental works of universal culture and at the same time books of a technical nature that would serve as aids to teachers and for self-learning elements, he proceeded for the same to edit the classics of the reading of ancient and modern universal literature as well as works teaching assistants among the books we mention The Iliad, The Odyssey, The Tragedies of Aeschylus Sophocles and Euripides; three volumes of Plato's Dialogues, Plotinus's Enneads, the Gospels, Hindu literature, Buddhism texts, Goethe's Faust, The Divine Comedy, books such asJusto Sierra's History of Antiquity and Agustin Rivera's Critical Principles on the Viceroyalty and San Román (Matute, 1982, pp. 177-181).
Each of the books had a passage introductory text taken from a literature or philosophy and sometimes a glossary of terms difficult to understand. One of the momentous works was the creation in March 1921 Magazine Teacher, his role was to complete the work of university establishments and schools, broaden the horizons of workers and peasants, to encourage the study of professionals and students, and encourage with practical suggestions the industrialists and exploiters of the land. Vasconcelos developed an educational ideology with which he intended to re-found Mexico, forcing Mexican society to reflect on its own essence in order to transform itself, grouping three substantive elements of knowledge: the school, the library, and the fine arts (Leines, 2005).
Other anthologies of great importance: Classic Readings for women with the participation of Gabriela Mistral and Classic readings for children, book reprinted by the National Textbook Commission Free in 1971.
Vasconcelos decreed that there would be no more reading book than the first year with which children learn to read and write. He edited the National Reading Book, with a circulation of 10,000 copies. Later the children would have access to general literature with the Classical Readings for Children and the Readings for Women, compiled by Gabriela Mistral, the works of Torres Quintero, Go ahead by Daniel Delgadillo, and Childhood roses and heart. Among the textbooks that were republished were two by Justo Sierra: Universal History and National History, whose edition reached 30,000 copies. An important contribution was The book and the people, a periodical publication that reported on national and foreign production (Vasconcelos, 1922, pp. 40-53).
In the government of President Calles, it was thought that the choice of an official textbook was an imposition, and the production of texts was limited. In addition to the methods for literacy, ThePeasant's Book and The Heart of EdmundoD'Amicis were circulated. Two years later, books aimed specifically at rural areas began to be published. Books such as Peasant Lives or The sower, which disseminates the experiences, interests and needs of the inhabitants of the countryside, promoting the benefits of a healthy and hygienic life and extolling values such as cooperation, diligence and honesty; just as they denounced the exploitation of the peasant and his misery, as in Fermín. With these books, a certain dose of social criticism was included in the official literature that increased in the following years (Loyo, 1988, pp. 268,269).
Educational reforms and textbooks
The book used as a democratizing and liberating instrument has been referred to by different authors until the beginning of the 20th century, Celestin Freinet, as an example, of the use of the printing press in schools, for the purpose of reflective, critical, and proactive reading of research that has an impact on its environment. In many Latin American countries it is until the second half of the 20th century, when textbooks for primary education are printed, a subject that has been controversial for the case of Mexico in four specific periods, the textbooks of socialist education 1937 , the textbooks during the creation in 1959 of the National Commission for Free Textbooks , its first editions during the 1960s; a third period during the educational reform in the 1970s whose textbooks were valid until 1992, where a new proposal for the design of textbooks appears. A then we mention the pedagogical and ideological support of the free textbooks in these periods.
National education policy that organizes and disseminates devices compulsory public as free textbooks is an important indication for not s understanding or what changes in official ideas of the national community, but the twists in integration projects supported in the legitimation and justification of the authority of the social order that is instituted through educational policy (Vargas, 2011, p. 490).
The educational reform of 1934 that modified Article 3 of the Constitution and established socialist education in Mexico. These educational policies appear in school textbooks more clearly than in other periods in the history of Mexican education, since it meant, at least for the established purposes, a break with previous educational policies; hence the change manifests itself clearly and openly in the contents of textbooks controlled by the Government. In the Cardenas school texts appear the city and the countryside, the peasants and the workers, the peasant children and the urban children, the mothers of these children, all with the same entrusted task: to change their ways of thinking to fight for the transformation of Mexican society. These new educational policies and reforms were adjusted by the authors of the textbooks.
Gonzalo Vázquez Vela, second secretary of Education of the Cardenas cabinet, expressed of the teachers who write books:
One of the most common and naive mistakes is to assume that the best teachers are those who have written books full of pedagogical scholarship. No, the teacher, the true educator, the one who needs and has served the Revolution, is a predominantly practical man, the one who consecrates his life to true educational action, the one who does not stop at purely school action, but rather takes outside the walls to the workshop or to the field, which defends the peasants 'plot, the workers' salary, in short, the one who makes his students: children, youth or adults, effective subjects and agents of propaganda in favor of health, work and mobilization in each of the centers of the environment that surrounds them” ( El Nacional, May 17, 1936, cited by Montes de Oca, 2007).
The National was dedicated to publishing textbooks and pedagogy to reinforce the new education in Mexico. Books were published such as Letters to rural teachers of León Díaz Cárdenas, The method of projects in rural schools, by Fernando Sáinz, Use of the radio as an educational medium, by Simón Serna, Proletarian liberation booklet for teaching reading toadults, by Blanca Luna Islas, and Small industries in the country school, by Aurelio del Río. The authors were working teachers. The content of these "practical and real" books was contrasted with those that had been published in the 1920s, when José Vasconcelos headed the Ministry of Public Education (SEP). It was said then that the books published by orders of Vasconcelos were for students who aspire to historical and mystical introversion, not for those who actively fought for the transformation of Mexico.
Official reading books, SEP Series and Simiente appeared late in the Cardenas government, between 1937 and 1939 probably hampered their distribution in time and their national coverage, especially in places most remote and backward in our country for which these books had been made, especially those that were addressed to the peasant schools. These books constituted series that went from the first to the sixth grade of primary school. They were simple in their materiality, small in size and number of pages, hard paste, printed on ordinary paper, with few illustrations on their covers and inside; the interior images were in black and white, almost linear character, those of the pastes contained few colors that only change depending on the grade, but the images were the same.
In the pastes of the books for urban schools, occupying different planes, a classroom appears on the blackboard of which the Socialist School is read, male and female students are seated and, standing in front, is a teacher; There are also some workers, a peasant and a soldier representing the army; Let us remember that the military were also part of the official political party.
In the book pastes for rural schools an outdoor scene is shown, a teacher sitting in the shade of a tree, with boys and girls sitting around him. The teacher has a book in one hand and with the other he points to a peasant who is plowing the land. From the pastes of these textbooks their contents are announced, likewise the weight that was given to the school, the teachers, the books, and the children in the change that was expected of the Mexican society is emphasized. Boys and girls appear in the pastas of both series, with this confirming the mixed character of the socialist school and the attack made on unisexual schools, which were the dominant schools before Cardenismo.
Other titles were Liberate, Life Series, Mother Earth and Simiente. Its publication caused an angry response among bishops who did not approve of socialist education. Mora (1979, p. 157) has shown that in addition to this type of protests there were almost no others and those of parents were almost exceptions, as was the case of the National Unified Front of Parents of Tamaulipas, who considered outrageous put them in the hands of children when they aroused hatred against so-called exploiters when all that meant only moral or economic superiority. This situation suggests that the teachers used the textbooks very little in the classroom or that they were used in areas that were not controversial.
The books were not mandatory, they were not enough for the population and the demand from private institutions and public schools in urban areas continued to publish books, other than official ones, for sale. At the end of the six-year term, the SEP continued to publish lists of books authorized for primary education, but as a control measure to prevent the texts from continuing to be a source of profit, the Textbook Review and Consultation Commission was founded (1940) in charge of examining the content, illustrations and their relationship to the study programs , this set of books continued to be used until the late 1950s ; as an example we mention the educational material Comrades, book and notebook by RosauraLechuga, published in the Patria editorial, was approved by the Review Commission and published on the list of February 22, 1941 and in 1952 it continued in the official catalog. Despite government efforts, textbooks remained inaccessible and different for most Mexican children (Meneses, 1999, pp. 137,138).
The unique, free and compulsory textbooks
The National Commission of Free Textbooks (CONALITEG) was created by presidential decree and I 1 3 of February 1959, having as main action: to fix, with adherence to the methodology and the respective programs, the characteristics of the textbooks intended for primary education (Official Journal, 1959). This initiative was based on the constitutional mandate to provide Mexicans with a free and compulsory education. Gratuity would only be full when primary school students received, free of charge, the essential books for their studies and homework (Official Journal, 1959). Giving a free school play to primary school students was nothing new. Since the Porfiriato and in the governments of Álvaro Obregón, Lázaro Cárdenas and Manuel Ávila Camacho, efforts have been made to provide reading materials and literacy cards to the country's schools. The originality, and point of contention of the initiative, is located in the free-only-mandatory triad that characterizes the free textbook until today and in the functions and powers that the State acquired (Quintanilla &Ixba, 2011).
In this textbook initiative there would be no difference between children in public and private primary schools, rural and urban; at least not in the educational material that the State would propose to deliver. Due to the free, unique and compulsory nature of the textbook, all students, by grades and subjects, would receive the same forms. In addition, their professors had to use them in classes and not request commercial texts excluded from the official catalog of the SEP, under pain of incurring contempt, professors who incurred in offense could be punished with jail, fine, dismissal and disqualification from holding federal positions. In the case of private schools, they ran the risk of losing official recognition.
With this measure, the SEP, not only unified content, but also attributed author, editor, printer and distributor functions and entered a market as an insurmountable competitor, capable of producing impressive print runs, considering that the first delivery was 16 millions of copies, difficult to match by other publishers, and to take the books to the corners of a wide territory and, in many cases, difficult to access. An action that, until then, and perhaps today, no publishing company had achieved.
Textbooks of the educational reform of the 70s
Regarding the changes in the study plans, the reform aimed to achieve an inclusive education of the student in his social environment as an agent of responsible and authentic change. The contents are aimed at making him an active element of his community, his state and his country, eliminating the traditional concept of educating as a recipient of already elaborated culture (Huerta, 1976, p. 315).
The programs for primary education were oriented towards understanding the specific reality of the student. According to Vargas (2011), the data and knowledge were framed at the precise moment of the development of the society in which the student was, to make him participate in it. In this logic, the free textbooks were more formative than informative. Its preparation was in charge of teams of pedagogues and specialists in each area, and under the coordination of grade and subject directors. The general coordination was the responsibility of the Methods and Study Plans Commission. The edition, publication and distribution were in charge of CONALITEG. The free textbook was characterized by taking a turn towards modernization, but still within a developmental and industrialist logic (Vargas, 2011, p. 498).
The 1974 free textbook sought to promote openness, popularization, and flexibility initiatives; the study plans were oriented towards understanding the specific reality of the student; modernization and industrialization, seeking the integration of the student to the specific environment to achieve social transformation.
The logical structure of the free textbook seeks to refer to the context-student relationship through daily use in the narrative: micro social nuclei are used in the explanation of historical and current events; An active role in the student is highlighted, as an example we mention the following sections: i) Mérida, the problem of henequen, unemployment, tourism, fishing and crops in Yucatán; ii) The industry in Coatzacoalcos, the industry for the derivation of petroleum products; iii) Mexico City, factory work, arrival of people from the countryside, traffic problems, union struggle. In each text, the use of the narrative resource is evident to present a new context characterized by social mobilization, by the deterioration of a nationalist ideology tending to unification and class conciliation.
The first edition of the book on Social Sciences adopted the dialectical method and historical materialism, supported by the Marxist thesis of historical development that interprets all social movements as a necessary dialectical resource towards socialism.
Echeveria’s inauguration speech accounts for this socialist approach:
… Our time challenges, in all countries, the effectiveness of the school. A static education can be the germ of discord and setback. Let us make each classroom a dynamic agent of social change, scientific progress, and economic development, so that it is a bulwark of sovereignty and a source of constructive patriotism. May the nation we aspire to be emerge from the school. A true educational reform requires a deep and permanent review of the objectives, concepts and techniques that guide teaching ... The acquisition of patents and the payment of royalties are too onerous for little evolved economic structures. Scientific colonialism sharpens the differences between countries and prolongs systems of international subjection (1970, p. 5).
Free textbooks in the 1992 reform
The 1992 textbook is published in a political context of modernization of the political base and liberalization of the country's economic base. The new ordering of international economic and political relations, marked by globalization, places emphasis on commercial, scientific, and technological exchange and services, among which the educational service stands out, which faces the growing tendency to be compared internationally every day, which requires a decisive boost in quality, given the imminent transit of students, teachers and professionals. In synthesis, the new relations based on the neoliberal model, characterized by the commercial opening and the downsizing of the State, which assumes its inefficiency in the interference with the market; policies are specifically directed at those outside the market economy without counting on the corporatist structure of the party. This marked the beginning of the redefinition of State-Society relations, no longer through organized groups (unions, workers, peasants) through a new category: citizens. Educational reform directs its efforts to the issue of excellence. Thus, the State promotes evaluation and self-evaluation as a strategy to improve the quality of education.
The books focus on the following problems: poverty, ecology, political democracy, and building a strong economy to provide work and food for all Mexicans. (SEP, 1992 p. 76).
The structure of this book changes radically compared to the previous texts, it begins its presentation with the topic "Ancient Mexico" and ends with the section "Our deficiencies", the way to organize the contents of the free textbook, Unlike the organization in hindsight, it achieves the effect of history in transformation, to strengthen the perception of change and social modernization.
In the last section of the manual La historia y tú, after the section “Our deficiencies” the following is cited:
Solving these problems is the task of today's Mexicans. Our story is not over. You cannot put the word END, as in the movies. It's up to you to continue it, as your parents and ancestors did. It is the story that you have to live and do, change and improve. It is your place in the history of Mexico (Secretary of Public Education, 1992, p. 79).
The contents of the book show the correspondence with the institutional ideological context, the coincidence of the values of political liberalism and the model of economic openness are exalted in the different historical periods recorded in the text.
A project is built against the great nodes that exalt themselves as representative of the nation of the past years and exalt political liberalism and the neoliberal economic model. High-value items that fit together perfectly, and this correspondence is permanently exalted in the free textbook. However, and in an unprecedented way compared to previous texts, the distance that is marked with the ideals of the Mexican Revolution is associated with a strong notion of a nation in the process of transformation and modernization; where several of the historical values of the revolutionary ideology are neither valid nor make sense in the structure of political liberalism and economic neoliberalism that the textbook proposes as a reference for the version of the nation that it builds.
The educational reforms of 2008, 2013 and 2019
Between 2006 and 2008, the following events took place: the Alliance for Educational Quality, the Comprehensive Reform of Basic Education; the change of study plans and programs (based on a competency approach) and again the reissue of free primary education textbooks. The curricular reform had the following irregularities: violation of the norm by not publishing the study programs in the Official Gazette of the Federation (1993) in accordance with article 48 of the General Education Law; The observations made to the free first and sixth grade textbooks by groups from different sectors were not considered; the criticism made by specialists was not taken into account; the meetings of the expert councils whose function was to review the study plans and programs were canceled; The opinion of the Interinstitutional Science Advisory Council on the sixth-year natural sciences book was ignored as it did not meet the minimum requirements for its distribution among students.
The Alliance for the Quality of Education takes the antecedent of the various reform initiatives such as the following: the National Agreement for the Modernization of Basic Education in 1992; the Social Commitment for the quality of Education of 2002 and during 2008 events were held whose purpose was the analysis of the Comprehensive Reform of Basic Education in which experts, researchers, teachers and parents participated, who pointed out, among other observations, that there is a manipulation and ideologization of the contents reducing the time dedicated to history, geography, civics and ethics, as well as artistic education. Serious geolocation errors are mentioned, and various stages of history are removed in the free elementary textbooks, as was done with the Conquest and the Colony in the new volumes for sixth grade. In contrast, priority is given to an approach that responds to a supposed global vision: reading, writing and mathematics; With this, practices and contents are standardized with a homogeneous and decontextualized vision of teaching and learning.
The analyzes conclude that: the texts and activities develop a mechanized, dependent, conformist, uncritical subject and immersed in a globalized world, faced with the homogenization of culture, eliminating the interest and knowledge of the cultural heritage of the communities and their national diversity. López Aguilar (2014), regarding the books questioned in 2008, states:
These books do not start from the interests and needs of teachers and students, the books seem to lack a unitary line, unlike the three previous reforms, marked by nationalism, miscegenation and by a clear idea of what kind of citizens wanted governments. They do not carry a logical learning process, do not promote reasoning, promote low cognitive demand, and hinder the generation of new knowledge in students, causing irreversible damage to millions of Mexican children and young people, condemning them to an uncertain and ominous future, in both economic and political oligarchy s fault or the teachers of educational failure thumbing his nose and lack of interest in public education.
The 2013 educational reform carries out an in-depth review of the study plans and programs, the so-called new educational model made up of five axes is elaborated: i) curricular approach; ii ) the school as the center of the educational system; iii ) teacher training and professional development; iv ) inclusion and equity; v ) governance of the education system. The curricular approach of compulsory education proposes three substantive elements:
The new educational model and its curricular approach recognize the importance of developing new cognitive and social skills of students: critical thinking and problem solving, communication and collaboration, digital literacy, and citizenship, including socio-emotional skills. This reform lacked a clear planning process for its implementation, there was no training and dissemination with teachers to guarantee the success of the model; textbooks and programs continued to be implemented during 2010, 2011 and 2014 according to the grade level and study areas, a pilot scheme was applied in some schools, the result of which is unknown. It was proposed to start its implementation gradually in the 2018-2019 school year, however, the mistake of implementing an educational model at the end of the administration of a federal government, its viability is nullified, considering that the main actors of its promotion and dissemination are the teachers, who are unhappy with the punitive evaluation system implemented in the 2013 educational reform. This situation opens a proposal to the new government; propose to cancel said educational reform.
In May 2019, the new educational reform is approved, and the project of the New Mexican School announced, highlights the idea of a regionalized education, considering economic, geographical, social, and cultural realities. The formal promotion of healthy lifestyles, sexual education, literacy, among other aspects that will be specified in the new study plans and programs.
The aim is to increase the number of full-time schools, create a mechanism for efficient and timely delivery of resources (mainly economic) to schools, provide them with decent infrastructure and services, as well as efficient access to new technologies. All this, focusing its efforts on the most disadvantaged areas and purporting to fulfill the precept of educational equity, understanding this, not as an equal distribution of resources, but as a mechanism to give more to those most in need. However, the closure of schools due to COVID-19 has truncated the educational project of the new educational reform; Teachers are working with some of the materials of the new educational model, others are working with materials prior to the 2013 reform.
The definition and implementation of the New Mexican School requires more than redesigning the new textbooks, as proposed by the General Directorate of Educational Materials. Work should be started consensus that teachers, technical advisory s teaching, directors, supervisors, in short, all members of the education system; Learn to implement changes for the New Mexican School, rescuing the contributions of the five pillars of the educational model reform of 2013.
Each of the textbooks of the mentioned periods corresponds to educational reforms that were part of the government program of the respective administrations with different ideological views. Thus posed, this work aims to demonstrate the link between the changes in the systematization of a distinctive national history of each free textbook and the transformations in the national unification projects that are associated with it, but that do not contemplate the cycles of its implementation in In a complete way in a generation of basic education, some textbooks that have a longer duration are withdrawn or redesigned without a didactic pedagogical analysis that evaluates their successes or proposals for improvement.
Despite the innumerable educational reforms, all the advances in book printing, the opening of libraries in all educational centers or at least in some municipalities where different schools are located, the learning results of the students, not are satisfactory. Recent studies of academic performance evaluations, mainly for the area of reading comprehension, the states of the Mexican Republic, we are in results below the comparative average with other countries, we have problems for the retention of basic education students. We can affirm that we have not yet achieved the desired quality education for all.
Reading and writing are actions that their learning is achieved by reading and writing texts used in the social context, compulsory school texts are not a guarantee to achieve optimal learning, it is necessary to recognize and include texts used regularly in life Social. The learning of reading and writing should include a varied repertoire of social texts and are objects of systematic interaction, both to be read to be written. It is irreplaceable, therefore, the presence and availability of novels, recipes, journalistic news, comics, advertisements, expository texts, poetry, letters, etc., to browse, read, analyze, write, comment, discuss, review, confront; that is to say, that they are authentic objects with which to carry out the multiple and diverse actions that those of us who read and write in everyday life carry out. Also in this sense, a diversity of elements are required to produce texts: different types of supports and writing instruments (Ferreiro, 1986).
On the proposal , again, of the redesign image textbooks should consider that e l use of internet, radio, television and many other digital tools have made it possible to experience other strategies for the teaching-learning before changing the image of books, we must change the very structure of books, based on the advantages of interaction in social networks; “Accessible from the internet and elaborated according to the educational needs demanded by a contextualized teaching-learning process” (Reynosa Navarro, 2016, p. 117). We are facing a significant change to multiply the resources for learning, necessary in basic education, let's consider today the possibility that many students interact through social networks.
The shock of recognition! In an environment of electrical information (today known as Information and Communication Technologies), minority groups can no longer be content-ignored. Too many people know too much about each other. Our new environment requires commitment and participation. Each of us is now irrevocably involved in the lives of others, and is responsible for them (McLuhan, 1969, p. 24).
By way of a simple example or, we could say that the Internet extends the ability to write, dissemination and multiplication of content becomes accessible self - publication or n and guarantees freedom of speech and press ; from the same , expires all previous analog means, retrieves the advantages of Gutenberg, the proximity of the telegraph, live broadcasts of radio and the television, to the same time reverses and provides access to texts, news, diverse content and globally homogenizes the issues of a true public education.
Throughout the history of humanity, we have witnessed three great inventions that have influenced the work of schooling, the first is the printing press with the appearance of the book as its main product. The second is television, used during the pandemic as an instrument for distance education. The third is the internet, with its set of tools that have made it possible to modify the interaction models between individuals, these latest technologies have transformed the communication and access to information processes that are about to define a new pedagogical model in schools.
We take up and make valid the fundamental criteria established by McLuhan (1996) to define the media. We assume that the Internet, generally understood, is a cold medium. The two fundamental parameters that McLuhan established to differentiate between the media are:
Thus, McLuhan proposes the concept of high definition as the state of being well supplied with data and explains:
A cartoon is a low definition for the simple reason that it provides very little visual information. These instrumental mediators are those that allow learning to be meaningful and not a mere compilation of memory; that is to say: learning through symbolic resources (images or texts). The telephone is a cold medium or a low-definition medium because a paltry amount of information is given to the ear, and speech is a low-definition cold medium, because there is very little that is given and much that is given. the listener has to complete. Warm media are low or low engagement, while cool media are high engagement for the public to complete.
The media are powerful agents of change that affect the way we experience the world, interact with each other, and use the physical senses, the same senses that the media extends. Information is everything that is in formation, that is, defined by its relationship with something else. Consequently: “they are active metaphors because of their power to translate experience in new ways. Speech was the first technology with which man was able to let go of his environment to grasp it again in a new way” (McLuhan, 1996, p. 78).
The environment is an extension of man, the extensions of man: the technological simulation of consciousness, by which the creative processes of knowledge will be extended, collectively and corporately, to the whole of human society. Our extensions will be multiple and diverse, we speak beyond cinema, television, or computer games, because any extension, be it the skin, the hand, or the foot, affects the entire psychic and social complex.
We can illustrate with the pedal as an extension of the foot, but not s or so objects created by man are extensions, but every event promoted by humans in the age electrical (digital era for us), is an extension of the same and within the inventory of the main extensions, you can find advertising, numbers, games, automation, and the spoken and written word. As can be seen, we are faced with a world where the extensions of man have increased, bringing immediate consequences to our being, and doing.
Under this consideration, it is proposed that textbooks be digitized and that their redesign be proposed with the hypertext methodology, which has become a revolutionary form of expression, due to its similarities with the ways of proceeding of the human brain. For many years only linear writing was known, which imposed, at the same time, a way of reasoning. With hypertext we are faced with a different way of accessing knowledge, based on the diversity of stimuli. This possibility opens up unsuspected paths to educational research and application, because, unlike television, it is an interactive system in which the student exercises his imagination and creativity and becomes self- gesturing (Calderoni. 1998, p. 157)
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