Vol. 4 No. 2 (2021): July-December [Edit closure: 01/07/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Barbachán Ruales, E. A., & Tello Conde, A. R. (2021). Research skills and formulation of technological research projects in students of a public university. Delectus, 4(2), 96-103. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i2.138
Enrique Guzmán y Valle National University of Education, Peru
Enrique Guzmán y Valle National University of Education, Peruhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5762-3431
Research skills and the formulation of technological research projects are key elements in the professional training of students in the technological area. The objective of this work was to establish the relationship between research skills and the formulation of technological research projects in students of Production Mechanics education at a public university. Research of a quantitative approach, hypothetical-deductive method, applied type, with non-experimental design, transectional correlational. The study population is constituted by students of the superior level of the Production Mechanics specialty, with a non-probabilistic sample intentional in a census way, due to the conditions and characteristics of the work, totaling 30 people. Through the statistical test called Spearman's correlation, a value of rho= 0.940 and a Sig. (Bilateral) = 0.000 < 0.05 (significance level), with these results it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between research skills and the formulation of technological research projects in students of the Production Mechanics specialty of a public university.Keywords: Technology; skills; technological research; research skills.
Research is one of the most complex areas to achieve and implement in the higher education system. In general, only two functions have been fulfilled at this level: social projection and professional training, leaving research in the background. It is from the New University Law (Law No. 30220) that a greater emphasis is given to the aspect and development of research and puts it as a priority; specifying that the student must graduate by accrediting the completion of a research project, which was not previously a prerequisite.
Therefore, at present it is required that students conduct research in their area of competence, in their workshop or laboratory practice, in their development of their specialty as an area of technological training in education, which involves generating, modifying, developing, designing, manufacturing, building, producing, innovating, among others, whether it is a product or a service, in addition to the development of the educational process. That is to say, to apply technological research, but with the condition that it is also of an educational nature, taking into consideration that research is learned by researching, in the field of knowledge of the technological area, developing attitudes and above all skills that are required in technological research of an applicative nature.
Ability "is to achieve mastery of a complex system of psychic and practical activities, necessary for the convenient regulation of the activity, knowledge and habits possessed by the subject" (Petrovski, 1980, p.76).
Considering that professional skills are formed in the context, based on knowledge and actions, in which the student is oriented to the transformation of the object of the professional career. In this sense, the skills are developed from the beginning of their academic training at the university, in which they must be ordered and standardized. In a general way, in order to be constituted in such a wide way that it admits to apply, execute and develop its knowledge taught in the different courses in order to give solution to problems of the field of competence for which it was formed in a particular way. Authors such as Montes de Oca and Machado (2009) indicate that "the so-called professional skills are developed fundamentally from disciplines and subjects of the profession" (p.4).
In this regard, research skills should be considered as part of professional skills, which means that the action approaches in the training subjects should be developed during the teaching process of each subject in accordance with the formative research process. According to Moreno (2005), he defines research skills as:
A set of skills of diverse nature, which begin to develop before the individual has access to systematic research training processes, most of which are not developed only to enable the performance of research tasks, but which have been detected by trainers as skills whose development, in the researcher in training or in functions, is a fundamental contribution to enhance his or her ability to conduct good quality research (p.527).
In order for the person's actions to be transformed and adopted as a skill, they must be constantly repeated, thus internalizing and acquiring the necessary characteristics of that skill. Of course, initially this skill has to be coarse and through the course of the practice it has to be more effective and spontaneous at the same time that it is raising its level of complexity, assuming each time, a greater dexterity and skill. Therefore, as the student carries out research, he/she must also strengthen and develop these skills through the creative use of the knowledge and habits acquired to provide a successful solution to certain theoretical or practical tasks with a consciously determined purpose" (Lanuez& Pérez, 2005, p. 6).
For Barbachán et al. (2020), research skills are a consequence of various dimensions that are related to the higher functions of thought, as a product of ontogenetic changes of a person or a group of people that result in interdisciplinary cognitive processes, based on which the individual receives, assumes, transforms and adapts the information received from the environment (p. 96).
In this work, we will take as a basis the proposal made by Moreno (2003) in his work "a training for research focused on the development of skills", where he refers to the constitution of nuclei or nodes based on certain common features regarding research skills.
In the Peruvian national context, most universities recognize only the methodology of scientific research, however, most students and teachers are interested in conducting technological research (De la Cruz, 2016, p. 1). According to Cegarra (2004), "technological research, aims at the invention of artifacts or processes in order to offer them to the market and obtain an economic benefit, therefore, it is essentially experimental" (p. 50). Technological research constitutes applied knowledge of immediate practical use, concretized in inventions, designs, innovations, generally all negotiable for the productive sector, in the fields of extraction and transformation, such as those related to the provision of services.
The applied cycle of technological research involves research, development and innovation (R+D+I), which concatenates the impulse of science and above all of technology, playing its strategic and potential role, towards all areas of knowledge. In this sense, this type and applications of research makes it immensely competitive, because it has to result in a very dynamic economic growth, because the creation of new processes and products generally of industrial nature leads to industrial competitiveness and marketing of wide frontiers, but also involves a technological educational and research progress, component elements of a technological research. Also, the research development has to involve this area, i.e., technological research, but also educational (T + R + E), so it has to assume a specific protocol for scientific development.
Educational technological research is developed in three essential stages. The first one, a basic research, the next one an experimental applied research and finally a technological research of development certification. The first one takes place at the project level and the following ones in laboratories and workshops and are of an applicative and confirmatory nature of new product or service properties and benefits.
In view of the above, this work aims to establish the relationship between research skills and the formulation of technological research projects in students of the Production Mechanics specialty of a public university.
In an applied type of research, of non-experimental design, since variables are not manipulated, transectional or transversal, causal correlational, in which the relationship of two categories or variables at a given moment is described. The study population was constituted by students of the specialty of Production Mechanics, belonging to the Faculty of Technology of the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle, applied to a non-probabilistic sample in an intentional way by convenience of census type, due to the conditions of the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the work.
The technique used for data collection was the survey and the instrument was the questionnaire. The research skills questionnaire was composed of 41 items, organized in seven dimensions: perception skills, instrumental skills, thinking skills, conceptual construction skills, methodological construction skills, social construction of knowledge skills and metacognitive skills.The technological research project formulation questionnaire was composed of 38 items, organized in 7 dimensions: situation analysis, recognition and definition of technological problems, objective statement, construction of the theoretical frame of reference, methodological framework, economic aspects and administrative aspects.
The reliability criterion of the instrument was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, presenting a very high level of reliability for both instruments, the Research Skills instrument (α = 0.872). As well as the formulation of technological research projects (α = 0.832). The questionnaires were applied virtually to obtain the data.
Regarding the descriptive analysis of the variables, it indicates:Table 1.
|Dimension (3) Thinking skills|
Table 1 indicates that three students, representing 10% of respondents, are indifferent about the development of thinking skills, while 19 students, representing 63%, agree, and eight students, representing 27%, are in complete agreement. These results allow inferring that the graduate profile in the Production Mechanics program of study is pertinent in its professional training in that sense the thinking skills allow the development of: thinking analytically and critically, thinking logically, thinking reflectively, thinking autonomously and making thinking flexible, functions that will allow proposing and developing in a coherent and adequate way a technological research project.
Figure 1. Descriptive statistics of the variable Formulation of technological research projects
Figure 1, regarding variable two, formulation of technological research projects, indicates that 25 students representing 83% of respondents say they agree with the development and formulation of technological research projects in the specialty of Production Mechanics at the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle, five students representing 17%, say they totally agree. These processed results of the project formulation variable imply that the student knows a set of instruments, techniques and procedures that allow the description and production of technological problems linked to the line of training they have developed and those they will have to solve in the labor field.Table 2.
|Research skills||Formulation of technological research projects|
|Spearman's Rho||Research skills||Correlation coefficient||1,000||0,940**|
|Formulation of technological research projects||Correlation coefficient||0,940**||1,000|
|**. The correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral).|
Through the statistical test called Spearman's correlation indicated for this research design, a value of rho= 0.994 was obtained, which indicated a high positive correlation and a Sig. (Bilateral) = 0.000 < 0.05 (significance level), so it was concluded that there is a significant relationship between research skills and the formulation of technological research projects in students of the Production Mechanics specialty of the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle.Table 3.
|Conceptual construction skills||Formulation of technological research projects|
|Spearman's Rho||Conceptual construction skills||Correlation coefficient||1,000||0,697**|
|Formulation of technological research projects||Correlation coefficient||0,697**||1,000|
|**. The correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral).|
By means of the statistical test called Spearman's correlation indicated for this research design, a value of rho= 0.679 was obtained, which indicates that there is a moderate positive correlation and a Sig. (Bilateral) = 0.000 < 0.05 (significance level), these results accept the alternative hypothesis, so it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the skills of conceptual construction and the formulation of technological research projects in students of the specialty of Production Mechanics of the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle.
The results of the project formulation variable imply that the student knows a set of instruments, techniques and procedures that allow the description and production of technological problems linked to the line of training they have developed and those they will have to solve in the labor field. Finally, students agree in a high percentage, with respect to the development of research skills in the formulation of technological research projects, in order to execute and develop the knowledge learned in the different subjects that will allow them to solve problems in the field of their competence for which they were trained, in accordance with their professional profile. Which also raises Berrocal (2019), who develops a research work in reference to the scientific attitude and research skills in graduate students, proving a relationship, moderate and significant, aspect that is reflected; since they also present difficulties to theorize and problematize about their professional and social reality, likewise, they show limitations to define, characterize and represent the problematic situations with which they interact.
Regarding that there is a significant relationship between thinking skills and the formulation of technological research projects in students of the Production Mechanics specialty of the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle. These results allow inferring that the academic formation of the students in the Production Mechanics program of study is pertinent in their professional formation and that the thinking skills are essential with respect to their academic research development. In the same way, Aparicio (2018), regarding research skills and teaching practice in an educational institution, states that they are significantly related, since it is the task of development in the teacher's classroom where they should be applied in the classroom context in a pedagogical manner.
Analyzing the significant relationship between the skills of conceptual construction and the formulation of technological research projects, we can infer that the academic training of the students in the Production Mechanics program of study is relevant in their professional training, but lacks skills for the construction of the theoretical framework in the formulation of technological research projects. Therefore, they constitute references for the professional achievement of the graduate and should be associated to the construction of the theoretical framework within the technological research. In the same way, Carranza (2012), with the purpose of identifying knowledge management regarding science, technology and innovation; indicates that research in experimental development, as well as in innovation, refers to low levels of coverage and quality, which is why it refers to minimum efficiency to increase productivity and competitiveness with respect to international parameters. Technoscience emerges as cause and effect, an important factor referring to new knowledge, which promotes productive reconversion. In this sense, it also has to model world geopolitics in favor of countries with high technology that demand for their sustainability, the indiscriminate opening of goods and capital markets, the increase of privatization of industrial economic sectors, the undermining of the social fabric of countries, the dismemberment and collapse of national states and the overexploitation of the environment, as well as the excess of environmental pollution.
After the corresponding analyses, with respect to the data of the present research, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between research skills and the formulation of technological research projects in students of the Production Mechanics specialty of the National University of Education, based on the application of the statistical test called Spearman correlation indicated for this research design, a value of rho= 0.940 was obtained and a Sig. (Bilateral) = 0.000 < 0.05 (significance level).
This allows inferring that the formulation of technological research projects will allow the articulation between knowledge and strategies for approaching knowledge in the technological area, through the development and application of students' research skills, which will strengthen their professional graduate profile towards a more competitive professional market.
Conflict of interest
There has been no conflict of interest.
Aparicio, A. (2018). Habilidades investigativas y Práctica docente en el aula en la Institución Educativa de Ancahuasi-Anta[Investigative kills and classroom teaching practice in the Ancahuasi-Anta Educational Institution]. [Master'sThesis, Cesar Vallejo University]. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12692/34121
Barbachán, E., Pareja Pérez, L. B., Rojas Salazar, A. O., & Castro Llaja, L. (2020). Desempeño docente y habilidades investigativas de los estudiantes de universidades públicas peruanas [Teaching performance and research skills of Peru vian public university students]. Conrado Journal, 16(74), 93-98
Berrocal, S. (2019). Actitud científica y habilidades investigativas en los estudiantes de posgrado de una Universidad Nacional del Distrito de Lima[Scientific attitude and researchs kills in graduat estudents of a National University of the District of Lima].[Professional degree, National University Federico Villareal].
Carranza, V. (2012).La Gestión del Conocimiento en el Perú: El caso de la ciencia, la tecnología y la Innovación [Knowledge Management in Peru: The case of science, technology and innovation]. [Doctoral Thesis, National University Mayor de San Marcos].
Cegarra, J. (2004). Metodología de la investigación científica y tecnológica [Methodology of scientific and technological research]. Díaz de Santos.
De la Cruz, C. (2016). Metodología de la investigación tecnológica en ingeniería [Methodology of technologicalresearch in engineering]. Ingenium Magazine ,1 (1). http://journals.continental.edu.pe/index.php/ingenium/article/view/392
Lanuez, M., & Pérez, V. (2005). Habilidades para el trabajo investigative [Skillsforresearchwork]. Experiencias en el Instituto pedagógico latinoamericano y caribeño [Experiences at the Latin American and Caribbean Pedagogical Institute].IPLAC
Montes de Oca, N., & Machado, E. (2009). El desarrollo de habilidades investigativas en la educación superior: un acercamiento para su Desarrollo [The development of researchskills in highereducation: anapproachforitsdevelopment]. Humanidades Médicas [Medical Humanities], 9(1). http://scielo.sld.cu/pdf/hmc/v9n1/hmc030109.pdf
Moreno, G. (2005). Potenciar la educación. Un currículum transversal de formación para la investigación[Empoweringeducation. A transversal curriculumforresearch training]. REICE. Revista Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación [Iberoamerican Journal onQuality, Effectiveness and Change in Education], 3(1), 520-540. https://repositorio.uam.es/bitstream/handle/10486/660897/REICE_3_1_50.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Moreno, M. (2003). La propuesta de una formación para la investigación centrada en el desarrollo de habilidades [The proposal for research training focused on skills development]. Educar, 26, 87-96. http://www.quadernsdigitals.net/datos/hemeroteca/r_24/nr_549/a_7674/7674.pdf
Petrovski, A. (1980). Psicología General [General Psychology].Editorial Progreso