Vol. 4 No. 2 (2021): July-December [Edit closure: 01/07/2021]
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Flores Arocutipa, J. P., Velasco Loayza, J. W., & Luna-Carpio, J. (2021). Environmental awareness and eco-efficiency in the high school class at an educational institution in Peru. Delectus, 4(2), 104-112. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i2.132
San Agustin National University, Peru
José Carlos Mariategui University, Peru
José Carlos Mariategui University, Peru
The objective was to determine the relationship between environmental awareness (CA) and eco-efficiency (ECO) in 4th grade students in the Secondary Educational Institutions of the province of Andahuaylas, 2019. It presents a non-experimental design, basic type, quantitative approach and correlational level, developed in the Secondary Educational Institutions of the province of Andahuaylas, with a population of 280 students, and a sample of 162 students. Two instruments were applied with 40 questions for V1 and 44 items for V2. From the results, the level of associativity between environmental awareness and eco-efficiency is inferred. With Spearman's Rho, an inverse and very low relationship was obtained between environmental awareness and eco-efficiency (r = -0.043, p = 0.590>0.05), in fourth grade students in secondary schools in the province of Andahuaylas, 2019.Keywords: conciencia ambiental; problemas ambientales; desarrollo sostenible; Ecoeficiencia; pensamiento global.
The Ministry of the Environment, Peru (2016), conceptualizes environmental awareness as the insight that is possessed in the incidence of human entities,with their environmental surroundings. In that understanding, man's actions influence his environment, which will bring as a consequence, the planetary future (p.1). For Gonzales (2014), he defines eco-efficiency as a constant search for satisfying the quality of life and human needs, with the reduction of natural resources in the long term, in the same way, reduction of environmental impacts (p.11). Similarly, Ruggeri (2010), considers that it is an environmental strategy that consists of using resources efficiently and reducing impacts; while Ruggeri (2010) indicates that if one wants to be eco-efficient it is necessary to produce as much as possible with little; this implies an efficient management of the service and production stages of a corporate entity (p. 45).
For his part, the anthropologist Montagu (1981) confirms in his account, about the nature of human irritability, as something that is properly appreciated and that can become predatory. While Eynde (2014), states that environmental awareness is vital to manage to locate the possible problems and danger coupled with environmental wear and tear; also to be able to fortify the option to act on the circumstance, so that it is possible to identify the requirement and add solution options.
In the same line, Pardo (2015) exposes that out of a macro scope analysis, environmental awareness falls on a micro scope, i.e., attitudes, individual behaviors, beliefs, values analysis, all these with a psychosocial perspective, mostly based on methodological individualism and consequently there is an inconsistency between what people say and what they actually do. All this is assimilated to values and behavior, although, independently of the incoherence of each individual, organism and entity in their daily life, the interpretation needs a more detailed and deep analysis.
Also, when referring to sustainable development, it is necessary to consider the dimensions that integrate the social, economic and environmental dimensions; in this understanding, it is not possible to speak of sustainable balance when one or the other dimension is prioritized. When the economic dimension is prioritized, the environmental and social dimensions are neglected; however, if there is no adequate economy, it is not possible to speak of a life with quality for the individual, therefore, a balance between the dimensions of sustainable development is necessary. In the same way, it is necessary to specify: who protects better the ecology and the environment, emerging or developed countries, economically consolidated countries. According to studies, it is the countries with a solid economy that deal better with the issue of ecology, pollution and environmental protection.
Additionally, it is necessary to specify, if in ancient times there was a peaceful coexistence between humans and their environmental context, then at what point was there this imbalance between individuals and their environment, if before there was respect for the Pachamama, the hills, the water, the air and other inert beings that in Andean idiosyncrasy had anima. Faced with this type of imbalance between man and his environment, it is necessary to take a look at these ancestral customs of respect for the land, water, hills, plants and animals. In such a way, the destruction can be stopped and the catastrophic effects on the planet can be avoided.
At present, we are experiencing temperature changes, consequences of global warming, which brings with it the polar melting, rising seas and rivers, heavy rains and very low temperatures as well as high temperatures, pandemics, among others. The concern is also because species of wild animals and plants that existed naturally before are disappearing, the environmental stability of the future is being compromised as a result of social dehumanization and lack of world equity; becoming a global one that needs urgent attention. From an international position based on developing the awareness of every human being on the planet regardless of their social, racial or economic status (Reynosa Navarro, 2015). Therefore, it is required to form environmental citizens with holistic policies and curricula worldwide and try to mitigate in some way the accelerated decline of the planet. In short, environmental "heroes" are required to generate awareness throughout humanity; with the ability to observe the globe, to accept it as it is, to love it (Rolland, 2015).
The objective of this study was to establish the correlation between environmental awareness and eco-efficiency in 4th grade schoolchildren in the educational institutions of the province of Andahuaylas-Peru, 2019". This study is important, especially for the regional context because it involves different educational institutions in the province of Andahuaylas in rural and urban areas. In the same way, this research is of interest for addressing environmental issues that affect the world and even endanger human existence; hence, the importance of environmental education in schoolchildren who will be the future citizens who will observe an environmental awareness with eco-efficiency practices measured by the knowledge they have about the impact on humans and their environmental context (MINEDU, 2017).
MetThe study is of basic type (Hernández et al, 2010), its approach is quantitative (Dayne, 2011), the method is hypothetically deductive (Prieto, 2013), its design is non-experimental (Moreno, 2013), the universe was constituted by 280 students and sample of 162 students of the secondary school institutions of the city of Andahuaylas. Survey was the technique used and the questionnaire was the instrument applied. All the information was collected from students of the secondary schoolinstitutions in the province of Andahuaylas; these data were processed using the SPSS v25 statistical software, by variable and dimensions. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to demonstrate the hypothesis with a p value of 0.000 where p < 0.05.
The results and their respective interpretations are presented below.
Results for environmental awarenessTable 1.
Figure 1. Environmental Awareness
In the figure and table 1 we observe the derivations of variable one, referred to EA in the fourth-grade schoolchildren of the school institutions of the province of Andahuaylas 2019, they consider in the deficient level 15.43%, in the regular range 47.53% and 37.04% consider that environmental education is efficient. So, they have knowledge about the effects of a negative environmental attitude; also, about the harmonious coexistence with the environmental context, and coherent practices for environmental protection.
Results of the eco-efficiency variableTable 2.
Figure 2. Eco-efficiency variable
In the statistical description of the eco-efficiency variable, the results in figure and table 2 show that 24.07% of the 4th grade students surveyed from the schools in the province of Andahuaylas consider that eco-efficiency is not optimal, 51.85% say that this variable is regular, 34.07% believe that eco-efficiency is optimal in the institutions sampled; therefore, there is rational use of energy and solid waste management.
Comparative levels between environmental awareness and eco-efficiency in the secondary school institutions of the province of Andahuaylas 2019Table 3.
|% of total||5,56%||4,32%||5,56%||15,43%|
|% of total||9,26%||27,16%||11,11%||47,53%|
|% of total||9,26%||20,37%||7,41%||37,04%|
|% of total||24,07%||51,85%||24,07%||100,00%|
Figure 3. Environmental Awareness and Eco-efficiency
Based on the figure and cross table 3, it is described that 20.37% perceive that the associativity between environmental awareness and eco-efficiency are efficient and regular; while, 27.16% believe that it is regular, 5.56% appreciate that it is not optimal and deficient this correlation of variables, according to the schoolchildren of the fourth grade of secondary level of the educational institutions of the province of Andahuaylas 2019.
Do these data comply with the Gaussian curve? We can say yes. When the significance level is 0.000 it establishes that the data are not normal, in addition it is observed that the degree of freedom or the sample is 162 students. Therefore, when n > 50, Kolmogorov-Smirnov is used and if n < 50, Shapiro-Wilk is used, then Spearman's Rho statistic will be used because the data are not normal and the questionnaire contains qualitative information for this research. Otherwise, Pearson's statistic would have been used for quantitative information and when the data are normal and it is determined when the p > 0.05.
Ho. There is an inverse, negative relationship between environmental awareness and eco-efficiency in fourth grade schoolchildren in secondary schools in the province of Andahuaylas, 2019.Table 4.
According to the statistical result of the previous table shows, (r = - 0.043, p = 0.590>0.05) that there is a very low negative reciprocity according to Spearman's Rho between the variables Environmental Awareness and Ecoefficiency, so Ho is admitted, reaching the conclusion: that there is a negative and very low relationship between Environmental Awareness and Ecoefficiency in fourth grade students in the Secondary Schools of the province of Andahuaylas, 2019. This indicates that having a relevant environmental awareness is not always a guarantee that the learner manages the use of energy, water, soil and solid waste.
In the same way, when specific hypothesis tests are performed between the dimensions (D) of V1 directly with V2 with Spearman's Rho statistic the following correlations, (r =0.166 p = 0.034<0.05), indicates low reciprocity between D1 with V2; (r = -0.124, p = 0. 115>0.05), which indicates a very low inverse, negative correspondence between D2 and V2; (r =0.018, p = 0.818>0.05), which indicates a very low positive correspondence between D3 and V2; (r = -0.026, p = 0.744>0.05). which indicates a very low, negative correspondence between D4 and V2. Therefore, the level of correlations between the cognitive, affective, conative and active dimensions with eco-efficiency are low and weak, even inverse.
Previous processing of the statistical results, first the questionnaires were applied to the students of the different institutions of the province of Andahuaylas. Then, consolidated into a data for processing, whose derivations were analyzed to establish the peculiarities, traits and fundamental properties of the variables under study.
With reference to the main purpose the Spearman's Rho statistic, (r = -0.043, p = 0.590 >0.05) specifies a very low negative correlation between Environmental Awareness and Ecoefficiency, this is also described by (Lloclla, 2014), who in his doctoral thesis emphasizes that these variables should generate environmental attitude of change for future generations in the education sector, which should employ relevant strategies of the subject for learning, in order to produce a positive environmental change and healthy coexistence in individuals. In order to achieve environmental sustainability, educational entities should be integrated in a collective way, and RBE should be transversal with the university. In entities where eco-efficiency is worked, it contributes to a solidary and responsible environmental organization that promotes entrepreneurship and inquiry.
In relation to this hypothesis, it is specified that the level of associativity is moderate and negative, due to the fact that students show attitudes contrary to environmental care, throwing garbage anywhere, leaving the water in the pipes open, leaving the lights on in the classroom, mistreating the plants in the institutional garden, in other words, they do not demonstrate eco-efficient practices. This coincides with what was stated by Calle (2016), who in his study specifies that there is little environmental awareness, due to the fact that from home people come with little training in values that contribute to the care of public goods, putting the health of the student and his classmates at risk.
In reference to the first specific hypothesis, according to Spearman's Rho statistic (r = 0.166; p = 0.034<0.05), which indicates very low positive correspondence between the cognitive dimension and eco-efficiency, which resembles the work of Paniagua (2017), who in his study proved that there is a significant improvement in terms of attitudes of change in reference with environmental care globally and its variables dimensions. For their part, schoolchildren despite having knowledge and information about environmental care their actions and attitudes are contrary to environmental protection. The low correspondence is similar to the author's research in contrast, in the sense that the eco-efficient entities promote the school bio-garden, however, when counting these students, they do not have their gardens at home even though they have space at home. They simply do not have it despite knowing that it is more hygienic and healthier to consume products that they themselves produce, it is easier to buy from the market.
With reference to the second specific hypothesis, according to Spearman's Rho statistic (r = -0.124; p = 0.115>0.05), which indicates very low and negative correlation between the affective dimension with eco-efficiency with whose conclusions are similar to that raised by Almeida (2016), who concludes that they are at the intermediate level the primary level learners in environmental awareness. The lack of affection of the students for everything that has life, such as plants and animals, is of concern; there are few schoolchildren who love and protect nature.
In reference to the third specific hypothesis, according to Spearman's Rho statistic (r = 0.018; p = 0.818>0.05), which indicates a very low positive correlation between the conative dimension with eco-efficiency, a study that is similar in its inference to that of Bravo Quintana (2015), who concludes that there is a direct correlation between assimilation techniques with wastewater treatment. On the other hand, it is specified, there is much indifference on the part of citizens and schoolchildren in environmental issues, in this understanding, natural resources are used indiscriminately and there is a lack of commitment to environmental protection. In the same way, it is desired to clarify in comparison with the author, there is an omission to indifference of the citizens and authorities with respect to the treatment of sewage. There are few cities in the country that treat their sewage, on the contrary, they make it flow into rivers and seas, thereby annihilating many beings of aquatic biodiversity.
With reference to the fourth specific hypothesis, according to Spearman's Rho statistic (r = -0.026, p = 0.744>0.05), a very low negative correspondence between the active dimension with eco-efficiency is precise, which contradicts with the inferences of Marin (2018), where he concludes that the construction and operation of forest nurseries eloquently contributes to the development of environmental awareness. On the other hand, the intervention of schoolchildren in collaborating and contributing in defense of the environment is necessary. This contradiction is manifested in that the implementation of a school nursery is not always a guarantee that they can have an environmental awareness in the future, after having experienced eco-efficient practices in an educational entity, nor does it guarantee that in their adult life they will possess an environmental culture because these habits are formed from the schoolchildren's home.
In relation to the general hypothesis (r = -0.043, p = 0.590>0.05), there is a very low negative correlation between environmental awareness and eco-efficiency, therefore, Hi is rejected and Ho is admitted: there is a low and negative relationship between environmental awareness and eco-efficiency in the participating schoolchildren.
In reference to the first specific hypothesis, (r = 0.166; p = 0.034<0.05), indicates a very low significant and positive correlation between the cognitive dimension and eco-efficiency; in this understanding, Hi is affirmed and Ho is refuted, so it is inferred that there is a very low and positive relationship between the cognitive dimension and eco-efficiency in the participating schoolchildren.
With reference to the second specific hypothesis, (r = -0.124; p = 0.115>0.05), indicates a very low negative correlation between the affective dimension and ecoefficiency, therefore, Ho is admitted and Hi is rejected. Concluding that there is a very low negative inverse relationship between the affective dimension and eco-efficiency in the participating schoolchildren.
Regarding the third specific hypothesis with (r = 0.018; p = 0.818>0.05), which indicates a very low positive correlation between the conative dimension and eco-efficiency, Hi is refuted and it is inferred that there is a very low positive correlation between the conative dimension and eco-efficiency in the participating schoolchildren.
Regarding the fourth specific hypothesis (r = -0.026; p = 0.744>0.05), which indicates a very low correlation between the active dimension and eco-efficiency, Hi is rejected and Ho is admitted, and it is concluded that there is a very low inverse correlation between the active dimension and eco-efficiency in the participating schoolchildren.
Conflict of interest
There has been no conflict of interest.
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