Vol. 4 No. 2 (2021): July-December [Edit closure: 01/07/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Luna Santos, J. C., & Luna Santos, A. O. (2021). The use of the Khan Academy virtual platform and the learning of mathematics in a private university of Peru. Delectus, 4(2), 84-89. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i2.129
The effectiveness of the Khan Academy method was determined, taking into account the perseverance levels of 24 students between 19 and 20 years of age from the third cycle of the Business faculty in the subject of mathematics at the North Private University in Peru. In order to determine the perseverance levels of the participants in this study, a special questionnaire modified from the Likert Scale, duly validated and standardized, was used. The results show that the Khan Academy platform plays a facilitating role in student learning and that the teacher should mediate in the process, motivating perseverance, since it has been demonstrated that this attitude is an important factor for success in the achievement of competencies in the area of mathematics.
Keywords: Khan Academy, teaching platform, mathematics teaching.
The teaching and learning processes in recent years have undergone profound changes as a result of the technological irruption and the adoption of educational models mediated by information and communication technologies (ICT). It can be said then that the environment of the knowledge and information society has generated a pressure on educational institutions, which leads them to adopt technologies in their management and didactic processes.
There are several reports that report an increase in public policies related to the introduction of ICT in the last decade, there is evidence of notorious changes that have been achieved in programs implemented in national and subnational spaces in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica and Uruguay or by the promotion and facilities for access to technological devices, educational platforms and development of skills with digital technologies(Cruz Rodriguez, 2018).
Considering that today's generations are very close and familiar with the use of technologies, teachers assume the challenge of taking advantage of this scenario in their favor. In this regard Dubois and Cortés (2005), cited byLicea et al., (2017)mention that "technology cannot be understood if it is analyzed in isolation from the processes of social interaction, and state that contemporary electronic devices, as well as new ICTs, should not be perceived only as technical supports for everyday activities", these should be considered as a way of understanding humans with potential to generate and share learning experiences, which generates new educational processes that should be studied and incorporated into their value chain.
In various latitudes there are institutional efforts to align with this trend, such is the case of the European Strategy 2020 that encourages the incorporation of ICT in higher education, or the case of Colombia, which in its National Ten-Year Education Plan 2016-2026 establishes the mechanisms for the integration of technologies in teaching, research and innovation to achieve quality education(Lasso Cardona & Conde Rodriguez, 2020).
The context of the pandemic that we continue to live has generated an increase in the use of technology in general and in particular in the teaching and learning processes, which have been integrated into the strategies of teachers and students(Perez, 2021).In this scenario, the importance of technological resources is highlighted, since there is evidence of their benefits. In this regard,Perez(2021), states that there is research in several Latin American countries regarding the importance of the Khan Academy (KA) platform in mathematics teaching processes with significant results that consider that the use of videos and the platform as a whole improve academic performance.
In line with the scenario of technological development and the process of incorporation of ICT in educational environments described above, the present research aims to analyze the relationship between the use of the virtual platform Khan Academy and the achievement of learning in the subject of mathematics in the career of Communication Sciences in a private university in Peru.
The study presents a contextualization of the subject and the need for research in the first part, then describes the methodological process, results, discussion and conclusions.
Due to the nature of the phenomenon under study, the quantitative approach with cross-sectional design has been used. In this regard, "the quantitative approach is based on the probabilistic induction of logical positivism, the penetrating, controlled and objective measurement; allowing the researcher to make inferences beyond the data" (Ochoa et al., 2020, p. 16), in other words, it is a confirmatory procedure that uses the deductive and inferential method, which is oriented to the results through the use of solid data and whose processes can be replicable.
In relation to the cross-sectional design,Rodríguez & Mendivelso(2018),mention that these include individuals at a given time, this means that a measurement is made simultaneously and highlights the fact that the researcher does not perform intervention and performs a single measurement of the variable or variables in each unit of analysis.
The population of the present study is constituted by the students of the Private University of the North in Peru, which according to its web page is 66,850. The unit of analysis are the students who are in the third cycle in the faculty of Business (Mathematics 1 course) whose ages range between 19 and 20 years old.
A non-probabilistic sampling was applied for the convenience of the researcher. The sample consisted of 24 students divided into two groups (each group of 12) according to the use of the Khan Academy platform, to whom an instrument called perseverance questionnaire was applied, duly validated and reliable. Regarding non-probabilistic convenience sampling,Lerma Meza et al.(2021),mention that it is a method consisting of the selection of individuals for the sample, which is convenient for the researcher. This convenience may be related to the ease of access to relevant research data or because it is easier due to geographical proximity or other criteria.
The research design is O1 → X1, O2 → X2; where O1 and O2 are the groups; and X1 and X2 are the averages obtained.
The hypothesis proposed is that the perseverance factor generates significant differences in the academic performance of students.
Null hypothesis (Ho)
There are no significant differences in the academic performance averages between students in groups O1 and O2.
Alternative hypothesis (H1)
There are significant differences in academic performance averages between students in groups O1 and O2.
Due to the nature of the variable, the Student's T-test for independent samples was applied, whose statistical process was performed using SPSS V.26 software with the routine "analyze / compare means / t-test" for independent samples. About statistical tests in research,Flores-Ruiz et al.(2017),mention that "if the researcher wants to compare 2 groups with continuous quantitative variables and with normal distribution, (put another way, comparison of averages between 2 groups), a T-test can be chosen" (p367).
The findings should be interpreted within the framework of the limitations of the approach, mainly those related to the sample size and the selection of the sample for convenience in the context of the covid-19 pandemic. In the future, it is desirable that the results be contrasted with studies based on mixed methodologies and probability samples.
The application of the instrument called perseverance questionnaire to both groups of students has allowed us to obtain different averages at first sight (see table 1).Table 1.
The differences in averages presented in Table 1 and subjected to the corresponding statistic (Student's T-statistic for independent samples) allow us to observe the bilateral significance (p-value), assuming equality of variances and without assuming equality, and in both cases a p-value lower than the established margin of error (5%) is obtained. These results can be seen in table 2.Table 2.
|95% Confidence Interval of the Difference of Means
|95% Confidence Interval of the Difference of Means
|Assuming equal variances||.000||5.425||7.909|
|Without assuming equality of variances:||.000||5.387||7.947|
With a p-value < 0.05, the null hypothesis that states that there are no significant differences in the means of the two groups is rejected and the alternative hypothesis that indicates the existence of statistically significant differences is accepted.
The results show that the perseverance of students using the Khan Academy platform for learning mathematics improves the results in the academic performance of the subject. The results show differences in the means at both low and high levels of distribution, which have statistical significance. These results are consistent with those found bySalvatierra Melgar et al.(2021), who in a study conducted with higher education students in the areas of Engineering in Peru, highlight that the use of the Khan Academy platform strengthened the learning of Calculus I in professional schools of Electronics, Logistics, Mechatronics, Civil, Systems and Industrial, allowing confidence, motivation and autonomy in the processes.
In the same sense, a study conducted at the Valle of Colombia University concludes that the use of the Khan Academy platform allowed positive results, 83% of the students who used the technological tool were able to solve the questions posed. Likewise, for 67% the topics covered in the selected courses allowed them to learn or reinforce their knowledge, and for 82% the use of Khan Academy had high scores(Lasso Cardona & Conde Rodriguez, 2020).These results corroborate the relationship between the use of the Khan Academy virtual platform and learning achievement in the subject of Mathematics.
It is also highlighted that the results found in the present research are aligned with the systematic review elaborated byPerez(2021),where it is concluded that the Khan Academy platform has influence or is positively related to academic performance in Mathematics courses in basic and university education, allowing the creation of new didactic strategies (such as the inverted class) in times of COVID-19.
Another study in Ecuador, shows consistent results with those presented in this research, finding that the Khan Academy platform is a tool that allowed the improvement in the achievement of significant learning in students of the tenth cycle in students of General Basic Education. The students were given a pretest in the multiplication of real numbers and then a post-test with the interaction on the platform, there was a significant change and as a consequence academic performance increased(Pacuruco-Garcia et al., 2020).
Finally, in a study conducted in the area of Exact Sciences and Engineering at the University of Caxias do Sul in Brazil, it is concluded that "the Khan Academy platform acts as a facilitator of the student's progress, who studies and performs activities according to their needs with the monitoring and support of the teacher in difficulties". The teacher is a mediator in the teaching-learning process of students, generating better opportunities for the assimilation of Mathematics(Sílvia de Oliveira & Webber Prado Lima, 2017).
The significant differences in the averages of the groups analyzed, allow us to conclude that the integration of ICT and specifically the Khan Academy platform; contribute positively in the learning of Mathematics and allow the digital inclusion of students in the teaching and learning processes in pandemic contexts.
The Khan Academy platform plays a facilitating role in student learning and the teacher should mediate the process, motivating perseverance, since it has been shown that this attitude is an important factor for success in the achievement of competencies in the area of Mathematics.
The perseverance questionnaire is an effective instrument for the evaluation of differences in academic performance induced by the use of the Khan Academy platform.
With the results obtained in this research, it is evident that the Khan Academy platform offers the possibility of supporting the student in his formative process; consequently, improving the teaching task.
Conflict of interest
There has been no conflict of interest.
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