Vol. 4 No. 2 (2021): July-December [Edit closure: 01/07/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Guevara Coronel, J. R., Valladolid Benavides, A. M., Chávez Santos, R., & La Rosa Feijoo, O. C. (2021). Psychological well-being and family communication in Moshoqueque market traders in the COVID-19 context. Delectus, 4(2), 119-125. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i2.125
Universidad Nacional Intercultural de la Selva Central Juan Santos Atahualpa, Perúavalladolid@uniscjsa.edu.pe
Universidad Nacional Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza, Perúriver.email@example.com
Universidad Nacional de Tumbes, Perúolarosaf@untumbes.edu.pe
The following research aims to identify the relationship between psychological well-being and family communication among traders in the Moshoqueque market during COVID-19. The methodology used was quantitative, correlational level and its design is non-experimental and transactional. The population consisted of 100 traders of both sexes, the sample was of the population type due to the smallness of the study group, of which 70 traders participated because they fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion requirements. In order to measure the psychological well-being variable, the José Sánchez Canobos Psychological Well-Being Scale was used, and in order to measure the family communication variable, the Family Communication Scale (FCS) was used. In the analysis of these variables, the Pearson correlation statistical test was used to determine the correlation between the psychological well-being variable and the family communication variable. Among the main results found, we see that there is a low degree of relationship of 218, with a significance level of 0.01. It is concluded that there is no significant correlation between subjective well-being and family communication in the Moshoqueque market traders during COVID-19.However, a significant correlation was found between material well-being and family communication in Moshoqueque market traders in COVID-19 times, because a low degree of correlation of 336** has been found, with a significance level of 0.05.
Keywords: psychological well-being; subjective well-being; material well-being; COVID-19; family communication.
The following research revolves around the relationship between psychological well-being and family communication in the traders of the Moshoqueque market in the city of Chiclayo, department of Lambayeque. Starting from a cognitive-behavioral perspective, it can be considered that throughout this research there are two main threads, which are psychological well-being and family communication, the latter being of a positive or negative type, which will mark in the future our own way of communicating socially.
The first variable is psychological well-being, which consists of a sensitive experience of human perception on the satisfaction of the achievements and goods obtained, with respect to what has been done and can do in view of the future to come, with respect to studies previously conducted by the Ministry of Health (2019), it can be stated that 58% of the Peruvian population does not have an adequate type of psychological well-being, due to the surrounding external elements such as: poverty, little academic development of individuals, stressful events of people, among others.
The second variable of importance is to address family communication, which is an interpersonal relationship between several individuals in the current context, which seems to be tremendously impaired in an intimate, personal and family way, for example: parents have left aside the family for lack of time, live the pace of life very accelerated (Lopez et al., 2016). An international report, mentions that 62.5% of families think that communication between parents and children has worsened, turning these complications in the lack of trust, communication or mistakes when communicating are linked to the continuous problems that arise within families. A small error at the moment of transmitting a message can be the equivalent of several quarrels that generate discomfort and an inadequate environment indefinitely until the situation is not clarified (Rius, 2014).
Barnes & Olson (1985) consider that communication within the home is not dramatic, adolescents spend less time with their parents and communication becomes more difficult. However, it is important to keep in mind that communication between parents and children has to be close and empathic, this is how parents and children should put themselves in the place of the other with the aim of trying to understand more easily what the other person thinks and feels (Diner, 2019). It is also necessary that the members of the family environment communicate and find ways to correct certain aspects so that communication improves and brings greater benefits to family relationships (Vega, 2018).
The family will always be responsible for cultivating in its members an integral worldview, some fundamental principles, its own dreams, its own creed about the essence and dignity of the human being and of the healthy coexistence in society, this vision shapes the uniqueness and the hallmark of each family despite undergoing modifications due to the passing of history, culture, geography, technology, among others (Pezutti, 2017). In this way, each family becomes the first school of communication between people, facilitating a language, instruments and a specific way of giving meaning to life, work and society so that each of its members can develop healthily with the capacity for tolerance, adaptation and conflict management (Tustón, 2016).
The World Health Organization (2020) has reported the death of thousands of people due to the presence of COVID-19 worldwide, where we perceive a deficient health system at all levels and in all countries of the world, people fighting for their lives to overcome the disease, collapsed cemeteries, prolonged quarantines, where many families have been infected; where many children, young people and adults have seen their loved ones die.
Based on the relationship between psychological well-being, family communication and the context of COVID-19, it has allowed us to reflect on the styles of family communication that have been evidenced in them. This is how it was present in aggressive, passive and assertive styles, the latter should be analyzed and rescued in order to strengthen it and allow to achieve a communication style within the family dynamics where they learn to express themselves in an appropriate, firm, direct, respectful and honest way; without harming or offending the receiver of their message. They favor affectionate relationships, always seeking to resolve conflicts while seeking their personal development and integrity. Signs of people who practice this attitude are those who tend to look into the eyes, a firm voice, calm movements and a fluid conversation, which demonstrates a high self-esteem on the part of these individuals (Francisco, 2019).
It is due to these aspects that the following question arises: what is the relationship between psychological well-being and family communication that the Moshoqueque market traders have in times of COVID-19?;which leads to the general objective of identifying the relationship between psychological well-being and family communication that the Moshoquequeque market traders have.Paying special attention on how the categories (subjective well-being and material well-being) of subjective well-being and family communication of traders are related. For all the reasons presented, a theoretical framework should be proposed, covering all these realities of study, where each of the variables presented above, which are the focus of study in this thesis, are analyzed responsibly and seriously, I refer to psychological well-being, family communication and COVID-19.
The present research was quantitative, because it seeks to quantify the data obtained to achieve more reliable results using this method (Hernández Sampieri et al, 2014). For this reason, it describes the actual state of psychological well-being and its correspondence with family communication in the traders of the Moshoqueque 2020 market. Employing a correlational level, because this research will allow us to measure the degree of relationship between the two variables. The correlational design is oriented to the determination of the degree of relationship existing between two or more variables of interest in the same sample of subjects or the degree existing between two observed phenomena or events. Its design is non-experimental, transactional, because its purpose is to collect data at a single moment, at a single time. Its purpose is to describe variables, and to analyze their incidence and interrelation at a given time.
The population consisted of a heterogeneous group, made up of 100 merchants who are currently working, between 19 and 53 years of age, who are under the self-employed labor regime. The sample was made up of 100 merchants; due to the smallness of the population, a population-based sample was chosen.
The instrument used in the research is the "Psychological Well-Being Scale" (Sánchez Cánovas, 2013). This scale facilitates the assessment of the level of general well-being of an individual based on subjective information about his or her degree of satisfaction in different areas of his or her existence. It consists of about 65 items and is divided into four subscales: subjective psychological well-being, material well-being, work well-being and relationships with a partner.
In table 1, the Pearson correlation statistical test was used, where it is observed that there is a significant direct relationship between psychological well-being and family communication, which indicates that the higher the levels of psychological well-being, the better the intra-family communication among the Moshoqueque market traders during the COVID-19 period.Table 2.
|Subjective Well-Being||Pearson correlation
In table 2, Pearson's correlation statistical test was used, it is observed that there is no statistically significant relationship between the subjective well-being dimension and family communication in Moshoqueque market traders in times of COVID-19.Table 3.
|Material Well-Being||Pearson Correlation
In table 3, Pearson's correlation statistical test was used, where a statistically significant direct correlation (p<0.05) has been found between material well-being and family communication in Moshoqueque market traders in COVID-19 times.
Table 1 shows that between psychological well-being and family communication there is a significant direct relationship, verified at the significance level p<0.05, which indicates that the higher the levels of psychological well-being, the better the intra-family communication among the Moshoquequeque market traders during COVID-19. In this sense, it is held that the personal perception of the level of well-being and satisfaction with the achievements obtained throughout the existence of the traders studied is related to the ability to manifest their thoughts and feelings in the sphere of their family life. These arguments are supported, in the affirmation of Molina &Meléndez (2006) when referring that psychological well-being would be the result of a process of personal construction based on the psychological development of the individual and his ability to interact harmoniously with the circumstances he faces in his life. Freire Rodríguez (2015) establishes that psychological well-being has a differential influence on the adoption of positive reappraisal strategies, search for family support and planning, thus optimizing the effective coping with problems.
Among the antecedents previously found, it can be perceived that the psychological well-being variable has also been significantly related to the life satisfaction variable (Moreta, 2017) and to the academic stress variable (Yataco, 2019). With respect to the systemic model established by Casullo, it can be said, that psychological well-being as a study variable includes components such as personal and bonding satisfaction, the absence of depression and the positive emotional experiences that an individual can perceive with respect to his or her environment (Garcia, 2015).
In table 2, the Pearson's correlation statistical test was used, it is observed that there is no statistically significant relationship between the subjective wellbeing dimension and family communication in the Moshoqueque market traders in times of COVID-19. Which indicates that in this research, there is no correlation between the category of subjective well-being and family communication in Moshoquequeque market traders in times of COVID-19. However, it can be found in previous studies conducted, that psychological well-being has a certain impact and relationship with social dynamics and the ability to cope with conflictive situations (Moreta, 2017). An antecedent found also reflects that subjective well-being is not related to one of the subcategories of academic stress, although a relationship with the variable in general is observed (Yataco, 2019).
In table 3, the Pearson's correlation statistical test was used, where a statistically significant direct correlation (p<0.05) was found between material well-being and family communication in Moshoqueque market traders during COVID-19. This indicates that the better the material well-being, the higher the levels of family communication. This indicates that the economic income of the study group has an impact on the level of family communication that they can experience in their homes. This is reflected in Casullo's theoretical model, because psychological well-being, being a construct that expresses the positive feelings and constructive thinking of human beings about themselves, is closely related to particular aspects of physical, psychological, economic and social functioning.
The conclusions that we have been able to define, after carrying out an exhaustive investigation, are the ones that I present below in an organized and systematized way:
There is a significant relationship between the level of psychological well-being and the level of family communication of Moshoqueque market traders in times of COVID-19. There is no significant relationship between the subjective well-being category and the level of family communication of Moshoqueque market traders in COVID-19 times. There is a significant relationship between the category of material well-being and the level of family communication of Moshoqueque market traders in COVID-19 times.
Conflict of interest
There has been no conflict of interest.
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