Vol. 4 No. 2 (2021): July-December [Edit closure: 01/07/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Sanabria Rojas, L. G., & Farfán Pimentel, J. F. (2021). Resilience and virtual learning against COVID-19 in university students. Delectus, 4(2), 90-95. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i2.124
This article shows an analysis of the existing bibliography on resilience, virtual learning and COVID-19 with the purpose of structuring and comparing the main topics that were covered at the time, thus being able to propose new research ideas, in order to offer accurate information to the research world. Resilience is considered as an essential aspect of well-being that plays an important role in education, knowing that several personal and social factors affect resilience, in addition to virtual learning that happen to make teaching tools for the benefit of education. It is necessary to pay attention to curriculum development and use new educational methods such as virtual education to strengthen information literacy competency in university students and how education would be in the face of the crisis caused by COVID-19. That is why this study investigated the effect of resilience in university students for virtual learning in times of pandemic. Finally, it proposes some alternative solutions for future research such as the practice of resilience and its relationship to virtual learning in times of pandemic. As a consequence of this crisis, the attitude that every student has in order to take advantage of and achieve online learning becomes very important; in this way, it is suggested that the student's good attitude should be taken advantage of in order to be able to get ahead in any eventuality.
Keywords: resilience; virtual learning; COVID-19.
The good attitude and the ability of every person to overcome traumatic circumstances such as the one we are living because of COVID-19, is being resilience as a novel perspective on human development by controlling certain negative impulses, in order to take it as an opportunity to grow as a person. On the other hand, COVID-19 has arrived to change the scenario where there is still uncertainty and desolation, but also daily heroism. There are many sectors that little by little, in total respect of the recommendations of social isolation, begin to offer solutions and to add from their place. This is how one of the most important sectors such as education is given, in that sense it is said that training does not stop that learning; it is unpostponable is why virtual education strategies have been implemented in a few days.In this way, the student becomes the undisputed protagonist, so that in virtual education the student, under the guidance of the teacher, will use many of the resources provided by digital environments to access valuable information and perform activities that allow him to strengthen knowledge and skills development. On the other hand, the current pandemic highlighted inequalities and harsh realities experienced by students around the world.
After reviewing the relevant bibliography, it is considered to take the main ideas of each author and contrast each one, so the present article in its development part considering as points: 1.1 resilience; 1.2 virtual learning and in point 1.3 COVID-19. Finally, it concludes with an analysis of the outstanding patterns of the reviewed studies and a proposal for future research.
Due to the fast spread of COVID-19, most of the world is experiencing changes that affect the educational system. In this case the closure of educational institutions affected more than 70% of the world's student population, which is why didactic activities had to be transferred within virtual environments, this change from the physical to the virtual. According to Giovannella (2021), teachers did not feel sufficiently trained to handle the Internet, and were only limited to the use of e-mail, they were not fully prepared to redesign and adapt their didactics to the new situation. On the other hand, students consider that the use of didactic technologies are very useful to increase the level of their digital competence, and they positively accept the use of didactic technologies and distance education. For Gandolfi (2021), currently more than one billion students are out of school due to this pandemic, where most of them are using remote learning practices that present inconveniences that are difficult to control until there is a mass vaccination that allows curbing the waves of contagion, but until that happens all the factors involved (society, education, media, community, etc.); should focus on the management, education and prevention of COVID-19 (Reynosa Navarro et al., 2021).
Resilience is understood as the result of the balance between some risk factors, protective factors and the personality of the individual. It is also defined as the individual's ability to adapt to adverse situations (Cabanyes, 2010; Cachón et al., 2020; Vizoso, 2019). Also, resilience is not static, it can be modified in relation to time and changes in the context (Caldera et al., 2016) and is directly related to life satisfaction (Condori&Martínez, 2019). In that sense, resilience as a factor is associated with the quality of life of the individual (Hidalgo & González, 2019). Resilience is a cause of the factors that generate achievement motivation (Falikah et al., 2020). In this sense, it is of singular importance for the learning achievement of students at different educational levels. For example, at the school level, the resilient stage presents three positive cases: school environment, family environment and self-concept (Cajigal et al., 2020). Likewise, it is argued that students' resilient behaviors are related to successful coping with adversities (Vera, 2014). At the social level, resilience has become one of the most important tools for the individual to adapt to adverse contexts. In that line, social support is related to resilience (Gaxiola& González, 2019). On the other hand, resilience is related to psychological well-being (Benavente&Quevedo, 2018). Therefore, it is argued that it is a construct for the analysis of academic success (Lozano et al., 2020). It also helps students to be more tolerant and to understand the context more clearly (Santiago et al., 2020). The current pandemic situation is one of the most extreme events that society is facing, both for its expansion affecting millions of people around the world, as well as its duration in months and its probable continuity and consequence. In this regard, Cleland et al. (2020), argue that the situation has included all areas of our functioning as a society. This is why the measure of confinement of millions of people was taken and the activities were transferred to the virtual format. Thus, the virtual space becomes the new educational environment, where the student must put into operation all his cognitive, affective and motivational strategies to self-regulate his learning in the most successful way possible (Polo et al., 2021). Therefore, several initiatives are applied to provide flexible, open and online education (Huang et al., 2020). In that order, people confront their strengths, facing various challenges and demands of the environment, academically and psychosocially, testing their potential and skills (De la Fuente et al., 2017).
The pandemic also had a strong impact on education, a very important sector worldwide, and thus millions of students were affected after the closure of schools and universities due to the emergency, so all authorities took the decision to opt for quarantine, in order to prevent the virus from spreading among students. In this way, it changed the way of working for both teachers and students, since the entire teaching and learning process would be carried out from home, thus adapting certain tools such as the use of WhatsApp for educational purposes. In this way, traditional education is transferred to a virtual education, thus considering some aspects: (1) the availability of an Internet connection in all homes of students and teachers; (2) the availability of a computer for education, or (3) a mobile device with Internet connection (Parra &Granda, 2021). Before this emergency situation, teachers were not familiar with technological systems, in this context it is of utmost importance to explore and use such tools to favor the teaching and learning process in this new situational context. Likewise, the social paralysis and distancing during this crisis have caused great changes in the life of each person. The use of technological devices has been encouraged more and more time in order to access online education, thus having a limited contact with people. Now there is concern about the use of the Internet by children and the possible consequences of this use, but it should be taken into account as an integral part of most people's lives (Quiñones& Adams, 2020). Teachers can foster a positive climate of competence and participation among their peers. However, more research is needed to better understand technology and the role of teachers in implementing the use of technology in the teaching-learning process environment. Therefore, it is said that digital technologies are an important learning tool that allows students to create a collective social situation of development that integrates imaginary, real and virtual worlds, within virtual games. On the other hand, the fast migration to online learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic has created extreme disruption for students, educators, and administrative staff. This disruption emerged and spilled over into their normal lives outside of academic institutions and the university (Mohmmed et al., 2020). Therefore, there is a need to incorporate an alternative approach, in order to ensure that students are comprehensively supported with these new challenges.
Higher education, of course, it has not been an exception. At the global, national and local levels, the impact is similar to other human activities and also assumes particular forms due to the specific characteristics of teaching, research and extension activities at this educational level (Rojas, 2020).Social actors with universities, colleges and higher institutes and research centers, have had to face with haste and creativity the challenge of reorganizing their activities to give continuity to the exercise of their substantive functions and in order to continue addressing the challenges and problems they faced since before the COVID-19 crisis broke out (Ordorika, 2020). In addition -as an expected result of a process of this magnitude at the global, regional, national and local levels- COVID-19 has profoundly affected the institutions, actors and processes that take place in higher education. As in other areas and activities of society, there have been effects and changes whose duration and transcendence are difficult to foresee. It seems convenient, however, to overcome a first stage of forced reactions, inevitably hasty and accelerated, in order to give way to careful reflections on the future of higher education. In this way, these reflections must combine demands, projects and initiatives for change that were taking place before the current crisis broke out, with analyses of the social, political, economic and cultural transformations that will result from the crisis itself. This is a desirable path and posture for facing the challenges that higher education in our country will face.
The students are aware that the values and attitudes they had to develop in the face of the change of educational modality are autonomy, responsibility, patience, better time management to comply with academic tasks and obligations. In general, there was an explicit recognition of the effort and dedication shown by the teaching staff in facing the complex crisis caused by the contingency. Meanwhile, teachers and students reflected on the importance of information and communication technologies as indispensable means to face the current health emergency and guarantee educational continuity. The need to strengthen institutional mechanisms to support educational actors in situations such as the pandemic is recognized, with spaces and resources that help in the constant training and updating on issues related to the use and management of technology for educational purposes and virtual learning environments. Likewise, ensuring the right to education for all people in a framework of equal opportunities is the first priority and, therefore, all political decisions that directly or indirectly affect the higher education sector should be guided by this right. And, finally, it is important to prepare in time for the resumption of face-to-face classes, avoiding haste and offering the processes and mechanisms designed to resume teaching activities.
Conflict of interest
There has been no conflict of interest.
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