Vol. 4 No. 2 (2021): July-December [Edit closure: 01/07/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Pasquel Cajas, A. F., Ortega Rojas, Y. K., & Cajas Bravo, V. (2021). Mobile telephony: impact on cultural attitudes and social behaviors of university students. Delectus, 4(2), 55-65. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i2.119
Universidad Nacional HermilioValdizán, Perú
Universidad Nacional Del Callao, Perú
Universidad Nacional Del Callao, Perú
Universidad Nacional HermilioValdizán, Perú
The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of mobile telephony on the cultural attitudes and social behaviors of students at the HermilioValdizán National University, Huanuco (HEVALNU), Peru. The research was basic, explanatory level, non-experimental transectional design. The sample consisted of 115 students from the Economics Faculty and 76 students from the Professional School of Tourism and Hotel Management of HEVALNU, chosen by non-probabilistic purposive sampling, for a total of 191 students. The survey was used as a technique and a questionnaire validated by expert judgment was used as an instrument. Its reliability was determined by means of Cronbach's Alpha, obtaining an index of 0.91. The results show that there is currently a massive use of cell phones and a significant dependence on this device. Few are the people who do not have one. Cellular telephony and the Internet have arrived to revolutionize our environment and turn it into a virtual world. It is concluded that there is an impact of mobile telephony on the cultural attitudes and social behaviors of the students of the HermilioValdizán National University, Huanuco.Keywords: cultural attitudes; social behaviors; mobile telephony.
The emergence of new technologies, generates changes in the behavior of human beings (Schiffman&Kanuk, 2013), and the case of mobile telephony is no exception, as it has evolved rapidly making users mainly university students, depend on this means of communication. Cell phones are perhaps the most common electronic artifact in people's lives, almost as much as clothing (Mercola, 2014), because today, leaving home without it causes a feeling of emptiness. Unfortunately, this analogy reflects a reality that most people are part of, but which is more dramatized in those who make an exaggerated use of the device, to the point of becoming a cell phone addiction. Studies suggest that excessive cell phone use can modify the human brain and, in some cases, damage it with an effect similar to that of some drugs (Macías, 2015; Kotler, 1996; Kotler, 1999).
Mobile telephony has had a great technological advance in recent years, by offering its users innovative phones that go beyond being able to communicate easily, because currently, apart from this, users have access to many other functions such as text messaging, camera, real-time television, short videos, music files, polyphonic sounds. There are so many functions for which cell phones are made today that for young people it is like a piece of clothing that cannot be missing (Fortunati&Manganelli, 2002).
The use of mobile telephony not only creates changes in their behavior and dependence, but also affects their culture and social relationships with family, friends and partners; taking into account that more and more people prefer to spend time with the cell phone, making use of its different functions, to the point that in many cases they forget the environment that surrounds them (Geser, 2004). The influence of mobile telephony has also affected university classrooms in recent years; it seems that students do not make proper use of cell phones, using them regardless of the situation in which they find themselves, materializing in situations and indiscipline such as answering the phone while they are receiving classes. These situations (the phone ringing, answering the phone, or running out of the classroom to answer a call causes interruption), interrupt the concentration of the student, the teacher and the other students in class.
The influence of mobile telephony on students caused by the inappropriate use of cell phones in their daily lives, is what drives to conduct a research with the purpose of finding how it affects the cultural and social environment, as well as to find the possible advantages and disadvantages derived from the use of cell phones. We cannot lose sight of the fact that communication is a useful process for the interaction of individuals. Nowadays there are many forms of communication that shorten distances, being mobile telephony one of the most common and widely used means in the world.
However, as with any useful tool, if it is misused, it tends to become distorted. For this reason it is necessary to promote values of good use of this means of communication that besides being a tool, for many is a lifestyle, which in effect has been causing negative influences on the culture and sociability of students of the National University HermilioValdizán (HEVALNU), Peru. It is important to know the students' opinion about the influence of the excessive use of mobile telephony on cultural and social changes. Therefore, at the cultural and social level, this research is fully justified because it seeks to contrast the various opinions of the actors in the university environment to issue conclusions and recommendations that can improve the quality of perception of culture and sociability. This being a topic that generates controversy for the university teaching staff and, naturally, for the students themselves.The objective of the research was to analyze the impact of mobile telephony on the cultural attitudes and social behaviors of students at HEVALNU, Huanuco, Peru, 2020.
The research was basic (Hernández, et al., 2014), aimed at achieving new knowledge in a systematic and methodical way, with the sole objective of expanding knowledge. It covered an explanatory level analyzing the impact of mobile telephony on the cultural attitudes and social behaviors of students, HEVALNU, Huánuco, Peru, 2020. In explanatory studies, data are obtained by observation of phenomena conditioned by the researcher (Gómez, 2006).
It was a non-experimental study of transectional type collecting data at a single moment and time (Tamayo, 2003). The population was represented by the students of the School of Economics (600) and the Professional School ofTourism and Hotel Management (160), HEVALNU, and the sample consisted of 115 students of the School of Economics and 76 students of the Professional School of Tourism and Hotel Management, HEVALNU, chosen by non-probabilistic purposive sampling, making a total of 191 students enrolled from the 1st to the 10th semester for the year 2020.
A survey was used as a technique and a questionnaire with scale-type questions was used as an instrument to measure the impact of mobile telephony on the cultural attitudes and social behaviors of students, HEVALNU, Huanuco, Peru, 2020. The instrument was validated by means of Expert Judgment. Its reliability was determined by Cronbach's Alpha, obtaining an index of 0.91, making it very reliable. The data were processed using SPSS v.20.0 statistical software.
Table 1 shows that of the 100% of the students surveyed, 49% agree that the use of cell phones helps to maintain academic communication with the teacher. Likewise, 46% say that the cell phone is a necessary means for searching for information about the subject according to the corresponding class. 52% totally agree that the use of the cell phone allows me to discuss academic topics with my classmates and 54% agree that the cell phone improves coordination in their group work. 91% agree completely that the Internet is the first source of information consulted when doing academic research. 36% agree that when doing research with information taken from the Internet, they check its veracity by consulting other sources.
It is logical to point out that the use of telephony has had certain effects in practically all areas of knowledge and daily activities, mainly due to the possibility of having communication and access to information at any time and place (Kukulska-Hulme, 2009). In the academic context, there is a favorable perception of the use of cell phones and the Internet, due to all the benefits involved at the communicational level.
On the other hand, it should be noted that at a pedagogical level, the devices are tools for interaction, but there is a risk of implementing sources of distraction and loss of attention of students (Torres Díaz, et al., 2015). For Brown (2005), the learning process of individuals when using the mediation of portable devices should be understood as an activity related to the management of information and available knowledge. Success in the combination of telephony and learning will be achieved to the extent that the solution of academic problems is contextualized to real life.Table 1.
|Totally agree||Agree||Neither agree nor disagree||Disagree||Totally Disagree||Total|
|1.The use of the cell phone helps me to maintain academic communication with the docent.||79||41||93||49||13||7||6||3||0||0||191||100|
|2.The cell phone is a necessary means to search for information about the subject according to the corresponding class.||87||46||81||42||18||9||5||3||0||0||191||100|
|3.The use of the cell phone allows me to discuss academic topics with my classmates.||99||52||76||40||14||7||2||1||0||0||191||100|
|4.The cell phone improves the coordination of my group work.||69||36||103||54||11||6||8||4||0||0||191||100|
|5. The Internet is the first source of information I consult when I do academic research.||174||91||17||9||0||0||0||0||0||0||191||100|
|6.When I do research with information extracted from the Internet, I check its veracity by consulting other sources.||51||27||69||36||18||9||53||28||0||0||191||100|
|7.When I do an assignment using information from the Internet, I always read the entire document before using the information.||32||17||51||27||44||23||64||33||0||0||191||100|
|8. Whenever I do work on the Internet I always read the document and then draw my own conclusions about it.||16||8||27||14||49||26||73||38||26||14||191||100|
|9.The quality of a work done with information obtained from the Internet is equal to or better than that of a work done with other means of information.||67||35||86||45||21||11||17||9||0||0||191||100|
|10.It is more interesting to read articles by cell phone than by printed media such as books or magazines.||26||14||54||28||33||17||71||37||7||4||191||100|
On the other hand, 33% of the students do not read the entire document before using such information; in this sense, 38% of the students do not read the document or draw their own conclusions about it when working on the Internet; in other words, they only copy and paste the information. However, 45% agree that the quality of a work done with information obtained from the Internet is equal or better than that of a work done with other means of information. Finally, 37% of the students disagree that it is more interesting to read articles through cell phones than through printed media such as books or magazines, since all these media present information of interest (table 1). Unquestionably, the use of portable devices does not replace any learning media, but offers an additional resource to support the teaching-learning processes (Ramírez, 2008; Herrera, et al., 2008). In order to develop adequate learning through cell phones, it is necessary the convergence of several elements, with the student as the center of this process. Thanks to telephony, students can access information whenever they need it, but they must demonstrate responsible attitudes in their learning, creating and sharing new information and studying with their peers in a collaborative manner (Ozdamli&Cavus, 2011).
Of the 100% of the students surveyed, table 2 shows that 45% totally agree that the Internet allows them to search for cultural content, as well as 53% that the use of networks allows them to share relevant information of cultural and social interest. Forty-five percent of the students totally agree that the cell phone is a symbol of updated technology; therefore, the cell phone they own must have the most advanced technology, such as Internet access or a camera (37%). Also, 72% agree that in social networks they find information about cultural and social events, discussion forums and study groups. Regarding the use of applications, 38% consider that it is not only the use of applications that helps them to keep up to date with news of interest, since there are other means that collaborate to this end. Thirty-seven percent of the students say that, although they have made progress with participation in events and cultural and social groups, these have not been as noticeable.
Finally, 42% of the students said that they totally agree that they use the cell phone because it makes it easier for them to give their opinion on current events. It should be recognized that today's society has become a mobile world with different needs, where people seek access to knowledge from anywhere, at any time, without physical ties (Ramos, et al., 2010), since the increase in mobile use is reflected in all aspects of human life, influencing the cultural context, as shown by the results of this study. The use of phones associated with various cultural scenarios has gained acceptance due to the great ease with which young people learn to interact with advances in technology, as they are considered digital natives (Román, 2017: Villalta, et al., 2016).
In this sense, it is important to promote the use of technology through safe practices that allow handling the large amount of cultural or recreational information available on the Internet (Organista et al., 2013a), adopting new applications that allow the organization and classification of information, while promoting the development of synthesis, analysis, deduction, argumentation and decision-making skills, so necessary in the academic context.
|Totally agree||Agree||Neither agree nor disagree||Disagree||Totally Disagree||Total|
|1.The Internet allows me to search for cultural content.||86||45||77||40||23||12||5||3||0||0||191||100|
|2.The use of networks allows me to share relevant information of cultural and social interest.||101||53||74||39||16||8||0||0||0||0||191||100|
|3.The cell phone is a symbol of updating within technology.||86||45||81||42||24||13||0||0||0||0||191||100|
|4.The cell phone I own must have the most advanced technology, such as Internet access or a camera.||27||14||71||37||61||32||29||15||4||2||191||100|
|5.In social networks I find information about cultural and social events, discussion forums, study groups.||23||12||137||72||17||9||14||7||0||0||191||100|
|6.The use of applications helps me to keep up to date with news of interest.||19||10||27||14||61||32||72||38||12||6||191||100|
|7.I have made progress by participating in cultural and social events and groups.||16||8||19||10||52||27||71||37||33||17||191||100|
|8. I use my cell phone because it makes it easier for me to give my opinion on current events.||81||42||77||40||13||7||12||6||8||4||191||100|
Of the 100% of the students surveyed, 59% do not agree that they prefer to use the Internet to keep up to date with the current international, national and/or regional situation, as it offers highly reliable sources; since there are other sources of information that are also reliable for them. 46% say that the Internet is the medium that facilitates the solution of their academic work; and in the same order 68% agree that the cell phone offers them tools that facilitate many tasks making them easier, which they have been able to verify throughout their virtual classes. 54% say that the cell phone generates their interpersonal communications, becoming a link of contact with their other classmates. 48% totally agree that the cell phone has improved accessibility for their family and friends, since they can be connected even from far distances.
On the other hand, 55% say that having a cell phone facilitates their need to socialize with people of their own age, being the main communication link in these times, especially among young people. Forty-one percent totally agree that most people have a cell phone more for fashion than for the applications it offers. On the other hand, despite all the benefits offered by cell phones, students consider that it is not more convenient to make friends through social networks. Finally, 48% of the students say that the use of the Internet helps them to share information of common interest, seeing here a great benefit at a social level (table 3).
The results show a growing importance in the use of cell phones associated with social aspects. The use of these devices associated with the Internet allows a better knowledge of the social environment (Bindé, 2000), this adaptation must be accompanied by a significant change in the educational processes towards the new roles and responsibilities of both the teacher and the student. The findings of Sánchez (cited by Hernández, 2016), indicate that the use of cell phones is beneficial to improve communication and propitiate feedback above 50% of students who do not use these devices. Among the benefits of the educational use of cell phones is the possibility of communicating with classmates or in the search/consultation of information. This coincides with Brown (2005), who argues that a theory for mobile or m-educational learning should consider two axes: communication and access to information.Table 3.
|Totally agree||Agree||Neither agree nor disagree||Disagree||Totally Disagree||Total|
|1. I prefer to use the Internet to keep myself updated on the current international, national and/or regional situation, as it offers highly reliable sources.||66||34||112||59||13||7||0||0||0||0||191||100|
|2.The Internet is the way that facilitates the solution of my academic works.||78||41||87||46||6||3||20||10||0||0||191||100|
|3.The cell phone offers me tools that make many tasks easier and simpler.||37||19||129||68||15||8||7||4||3||1||191||100|
|4.The cell phone generates my interpersonal communications.||76||40||103||54||2||1||10||5||0||0||191||100|
|5.The cell phone has improved accessibility to my family and friends.||91||48||88||46||3||1||9||5||0||0||191||100|
|6.Having a cell phone facilitates my need to socialize with people of my age.||79||41||105||55||2||1||5||3||0||0||191||100|
|7.Most people have cell phones more for fashion than for the applications they offer.||47||25||79||41||21||11||23||12||21||11||191||100|
|8.It is more convenient to make friends through social networks.||19||10||26||14||62||32||84||44||0||0||191||100|
|9.Using the Internet helps me share information of common interest.||91||48||88||46||4||2||8||4||0||0||191||100|
Table 3 shows that of the 100% of students surveyed, 52% agree that being without a cell phone nowadays is unfeasible. 38% agree that it is necessary to keep the cell phone on at all times, since it is a necessity to stay in communication; but on the other hand, connecting to the Internet is not a primary activity in their daily lives (36%). Fifty percent of students indicate that they do not spend more time sending messages and other uses of the cell phone than spending time with their families, and they do not prefer to stay at home using the Internet than going out with their friends (53%). Thirty-five percent of the students use their cell phones even when they are at home, while 49% stop doing their homework to use social networks, and even use their cell phones even when they are in class, checking social networks, chatting, answering calls and messages (47%). For 51% of the students, it is difficult to solve a work if they do not have Internet, and when they study, they leave their cell phones aside because they can become a distraction (47%), so when they study, they do not answer their cell phones (50%), their personal appearance is not affected or neglected by the excessive use of social networks (60%). The students (60%) prefer to go out with their friends than to be connected to social networks and indicate that the cell phone is not used for the sole purpose of using social networks or chatting with their friends (66%), nor do they stop eating because they are distracted by checking the cell phone (46%) or use the cell phone when they are talking to other people (48%). For students, chatting with their friends is not more interesting than chatting with them in person (55%), so they continue to value interpersonal relationships. 52% do not use cell phones during meals and consider it uncomfortable for others to use their cell phones while talking to them (46%). Finally, 47% do not consider it necessary to prohibit cell phone use in classrooms or public places.
These findings show a certain degree of dependence on the use of cell phones, generating changes in social behavior in students who prefer to socialize through this medium rather than in person. These results coincide with the findings of Marín. (2016) who point out that in the academic environment an atypical situation of increased virtual communication and decreased face-to-face communication is occurring. In the same vein, according to the study of Demirci, et al. (2015), indicate that depression, anxiety and sleep quality may be associated with excessive use of smartphones in students, this being an extreme of the relationship between the phone and its respective user. It is important to highlight the effects that can be caused by the inappropriate use of mobile devices, in order to minimize negative impacts on learning processes and maximize advantages to lead to higher levels of research and interaction. The challenge facing teachers is to bring about a change in the use of mobile devices for learning through the use of strategic pedagogical applications for learning. In any case, it is necessary to continue advancing research on the best ways to guide the didactic and learning efforts of the current academic community.Table 4.
|Totally agree||Agree||Neither agree nor disagree||Disagree||Totally Disagree||Total|
|1.To walk without a cell phone nowadays is unfeasible.||65||34||99||52||11||6||9||5||7||4||191||100|
|2. It is necessary that the cell phone remains on at all times.||19||10||73||38||41||21||38||20||20||11||191||100|
|3.Connecting to the Internet is an essential activity in my daily life.||16||8||35||18||55||29||68||36||17||9||191||100|
|4.I spend more time on texting and other uses of the cell phone than on family time.||12||6||24||13||31||16||96||50||28||15||191||100|
|5. I prefer to stay at home using the Internet rather than going out with my friends.||18||9||21||11||29||15||101||53||22||12||191||100|
|6. I use my cell phone even when I am at home.||37||19||66||35||28||15||31||16||29||15||191||100|
|7.I have stopped doing homework because of the use of social networks.||45||24||94||49||15||8||29||15||7||4||191||100|
|8. I use my cell phone even when I am in class (checking social networks, chatting, answering calls and messages, etc.).||51||27||90||47||12||6||31||16||7||4||191||100|
|9.It is difficult for me to solve an assignment if I don't have Internet.||19||10||97||51||18||9||47||25||10||5||191||100|
|10.When I am studying. It distracts me to use the cell phone.||11||6||36||19||21||11||90||47||33||17||191||100|
|11. When I am studying, I answer my cell phone (calls, messages, publications that mention me...).||13||7||42||22||15||8||96||50||25||13||191||100|
|12.I have neglected my personal appearance due to the excessive use of social networks.||8||4||11||6||21||11||115||60||36||19||191||100|
|13. I prefer to be connected to social networks than to go out with my friends.||11||6||16||8||17||9||115||60||32||17||191||100|
|14.The only reason I use my cell phone is for social networking and chatting with friends.||9||5||11||6||14||7||126||66||31||16||191||100|
|15. I stop eating on my own time because I get distracted by checking my cell phone.||5||3||8||4||19||10||88||46||71||37||191||100|
|16.I use the cell phone when I am talking to other people.||11||6||16||8||14||7||91||48||59||31||191||100|
|17. Chatting with friends is more interesting than talking to them in person.||10||5||23||12||8||4||45||24||105||55||191||100|
|18.I use my cell phone during meals (lunch - dinner).||8||4||13||7||8||4||63||33||99||52||191||100|
|19. It is uncomfortable for others to use a cell phone while I am talking to them.||88||46||69||36||13||7||14||7||7||4||191||100|
|20.Cell phone use should be prohibited in classrooms or public places.||3||2||2||1||41||21||90||47||55||29||191||100|
The results of the research show that there is certainly an impact of mobile telephony on the cultural attitudes and social behaviors of the students of the National University HermilioValdizán. The use of mobile telephony allows them to perform cultural searches, sharing relevant information of cultural and social interest. Students perceive that the use of cell phones is a symbol of updating within technology, which allows them to access cultural and social information through various social networks, so they use the cell phone to express their opinion on current events.
These results coincide with the findings of Pedrero Pérez et al. (2015), who points out that the use of mobile telephony has become a powerful vehicle to bring students closer to scientific phenomena; therefore, spaces should be provided for students to make use of this technology in the classroom to consolidate new knowledge, however small it may be, contributing to the development of cultural attitudes of students. As pointed out by Naval, et al. (2003), technologies through various mobile devices also influence the socialization process. Young people and adolescents grow up in a previously unknown digital environment, where a new communicative dimension is created that considerably expands their social field, allowing them to participate in conversations, even despite distances. For GarcíaMartínez (2014) the main device used by students to access the Internet and social networks is the cell phone, many of them have a plan on their device and the social network most used by these students is Facebook, being this the fundamental means to interact with other people, as evidenced in the findings of our research.
Upon analyzing the impact of mobile telephony on the cultural attitudes and social behaviors of students at the National University HermilioValdizán, Huánuco, it was determined that there is an impact of mobile telephony on cultural attitudes and social behaviors. Currently, there is a massive use of cell phones and a significant dependence on this device. Few people do not have one. Mobile telephony and the Internet have arrived to revolutionize our environment and turn it into a virtual world.
By identifying the effects of the use of mobile telephony on the cultural attitudes of students at the National University HermilioValdizán. The results show that for 45% of the students the Internet allows them to search for cultural content, 53% say that the use of networks allows them to share relevant information of cultural and social interest. 45% totally agree that the cell phone is a symbol of updated technology, so the cell phone they own must have the most advanced technology, such as Internet access or camera (37%). Also, 72% agree that in social networks they find information about cultural and social events, discussion forums and study groups. Regarding the use of applications, 38% consider that it is not only the use of applications that helps them to keep up to date with news of interest, since there are other means that collaborate to this end. Thirty-seven percent of the students say that, although they have made progress with participation in events and cultural and social groups, these have not been as noticeable. Finally, 42% of the students say that they totally agree that they use the cell phone because it makes it easier for them to give their opinion on current events.
When identifying the effects of the use of mobile telephony on the social behaviors of students at the National University HermilioValdizán, 46% say that the Internet is the medium that facilitates the solution of their academic work; and in the same order 68% agree that the cell phone offers them tools that facilitate many tasks making them easier, which they have been able to verify throughout all their virtual classes. 54% say that the cell phone generates their interpersonal communications, becoming a link of contact with their other classmates. For 48%, the cell phone has improved accessibility for their family and friends, since they can stay connected even from far distances. On the other hand, 55% say that having a cell phone facilitates their need to socialize with people of their own age, being the main communication link in these times, especially among young people. Forty-one percent totally agree that most people have a cell phone more for fashion than for the applications it offers. On the other hand, despite all the benefits offered by cell phones, students consider that it is not more convenient to make friends through social networks. Finally, 48% of students say that the use of the Internet helps them to share information of common interest, seeing here a great benefit at a social level.
In identifying the advantages and disadvantages of the use of cell phones in the cultural attitudes and social behaviors of students at the National University HermilioValdizán, it is concluded that there are multiple advantages offered by the use of cell phones in both cultural attitudes and social behaviors, so walking without a cell phone today is unfeasible, since it is a necessity to keep in touch. However, it is important to recognize that a certain dependence can be generated in the use of these devices, which can have an impact on the academic and socialization processes of students.
Conflict of interest
There has been no conflict of interest.
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