Vol. 4 No. 2 (2021): July-December [Edit closure: 01/07/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Guzmán de Castro, B. J., Castro, S., & Acosta Cruz, W. D. (2021). ICT and Education in Difficult Times. Delectus, 4(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i2.117
Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Libertador, Venezuela
Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Libertador, Venezuela
U de Cataluña, Colombia
The purpose of this article is to analyze the situation of education in Latin America within the coronavirus pandemic. It presents reflections and considerations that have been taken or should have been taken into account to make changes that the current contingency has generated by ignorance of each country context and realities. A brief description of the interrelation of system different elements, the changes made and the consequences that have been observed will be made. The information was generated from informal interviews with teachers and critical review of articles. The results could not be more dissimilar. There are two basic examples in the country, ranging from favorable results in some universities, such as the metropolitan university, to other examples that are not so positive, such as public universities, due to problems of connectivity and the training of the educational community.Keywords: Pandemic; Information and Communication Technologies; Education.
IThe confinement, the little exchange that exists between neighbors and study or work colleagues in person has forced experts and other not so experts to turn to the proximity mediated by devices. Calls, video calls and text or voice messages are the quick way that has been found to communicate and get closer to family and friends. Today the obsession of being communicated and connected through various devices and having everything or almost everything of our daily lives on Instagram, Twitter or YouTube, sharing or storing in the cloud is conducive and allows us to adapt to the changing environment in which communication needs must be met.
Countries in the wake of the pandemic according to UNESCO (2020) have had three main fields of action: the deployment of distance learning modalities, using a variety of formats and platforms (with or without the use of digital technology); the support and mobilization of educational personnel and communities; and attention to health and comprehensive well-being.
In short, 2020 has subjected the global population to the imminent modification of their habits, consumption, work and socialization routines. In this sense, the pandemic has caused countless precautionary measures from the use of masks, suspension of work activities, school and commercial activities; in short, it has generated a collapse in a short time that affected physically, mentally and emotionally the whole world. However, this crisis catapulted the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and their massive use as never thought before (Ojeda & Palacios, 2021 p. 98).
ICTs have had a significant impact on society, which is undergoing a transition in social, economic, political, cultural, educational and other aspects, which in turn affect their lifestyle and raise their quality of life, but has also made evident the social and economic gap of a society that needs to use all available tools to satisfy their motivations and interests in a conscious and responsible way (Reynosa Navarro et al., 2021). Thus, it is common to observe some teachers and students who communicate every day through the networks, progressively implementing virtual education without the trauma of compulsory education having a negative impact on the teaching and learning processes, i.e. teachers, students and parents without the necessary training to face this challenge.
Guzmán (2020); Amitabh, (2020) point out that there are many online offers, ranging from open links or not to free videos and books, access to content, courses, tutorials, virtual classes, among others that allow to alleviate difficulties. In addition, teachers play different roles among them to communicate effectively, which is why they must be trained in the use of different digital tools. Interacting and exchanging materials such as audio and video files or recording the sessions, using Google Meet, Zoom video or app and during the time that Internet connectivity allows to exchanges knowledge.
On the other hand, UNESCO has identified large gaps in educational outcomes, which are related to an unequal distribution of teachers, in general, and of the best qualified teachers, in particular, to countries and regions detriment with lower incomes and rural areas, which also tend to concentrate indigenous and migrant populations (UNESCO, 2016a; Messina and García, 2020).
For Villen (2020), COVID-19 put to test ICT developments when global education depended on technological tools and applications for virtual education progress and it seems that technology gave an acceptable response, but not teachers, since a significant percentage, regardless of age, showed that the preparation and training on digital competence led them to experience emotions mainly of surprise and a need for training in digital skills with which they can increase the use of resources in distance learning processes. These teachers were not prepared because the educational work from home brings many distractions and obstacles and also multiplies teachers’ work, leaving them little time to develop new digital skills and new domains in available applications (García, 2020).
In addition to the above, services in different countries increase inequality among citizens, reaching them unequally in all their regions and the lower strata. Guzman (2020) points out that when we look through a science and technology saturated glass, we see that in all times people have found a way to use technology to serve them and satisfy their needs and have used what science has discovered to achieve it, but unfortunately it does not reach all citizens in the same way. But nowadays, students, teachers, who have found themselves in the need or obligation to use ICTs to develop academic processes, find that it is not enough to know how to use ICTs if they do not know how to teach with them in the context where students must learn (Ferrada-Bustamante et al., 2021).
There are great technological gaps in ICTs access and use, with high levels of inequality between socioeconomic segments, age groups, educated and illiterate people, however, teachers consider that it is a problem to use ICTs in the educational context, because confinement and non-presence generate slower feedback between students and teachers, compared to that produced in the face-to-face context.
At present, educational researchers, planners and innovators have not stopped to work on technological literacy and, when many have, on the uses of the different elements of the teaching and learning system and citizens’ ICTs appropriation. The Iberoamerican educational systems have as a common identifier the aspiration to "build the citizen that the country requires and that in many cases responds to the national constitutions outlined profile" and "personality integral development", and from their legal bases they envisage a citizen with socio-cultural values, respectful of peace, respect for life, who knows how to confront problems, find solutions the community, his country and himself, a community leader who knows and participates in his field, promotes in the members of his surroundings ways to have a better life and more access to the labor market. These countries have decided in many cases, leaving aside their regions reality and context, to integrate ICTs into their educational process on a mandatory basis. Communication favors the collective and effective construction of knowledge, for the production of quality products, promoting intra and inter-subjectivity making conscious what you know and learn, and favors the interaction between learner-teacher, peers and students with in order to gain an effective and efficient learning process that goes from being face-to-face to other presence forms assuming that the message will reach in the same way (Guzman, 2013); Guzman & Castro, 2020).
The study refers to a documentary research based on a bibliographic sources review related to the state of art of what various authors have contributed to education in the pandemic in order to reveal the features and possibilities of these tools to rebuild the educational problematic current state, this study was supported by interviews to teachers from different countries.
In its development, a review of research by different authors was considered, including Marinoni et al. (2020); Puleo (2020); Ordorika, (2020); Picón, González de Caballero, & Paredes Sánchez (2020); IESALC UNESCO (2020), to contrast individual perceptions about the subject and thus identify the existence or not of coincidence and/or disagreement points among their approaches.
The criteria used for documents selection were specifically that they were derived from research and their results related to ICT and the educational problem in this difficult pandemic period, the information contained in channels and/or articles of peer-reviewed journals related to education was categorized and analyzed.
The selected bibliography was registered in a matrix where sources were classified (articles published in peer-reviewed journals), their analysis and contributions are presented.
We should begin by pointing out that ICTs, their use and appropriation to the educational process, pose important changes for the educational process purposes and in the role played by its main actors: students and teachers in the classroom, in the community and therefore in a country or nation. Nations and the State have the obligation and responsibility to offer quality education with social, cultural and economic relevance, in compliance with society demands.
But in Venezuela this misinformation time, with little or almost no investment in education, inefficient infrastructure and little or no security, besides with scarce or absent internet inside and outside schools, even without telephones in many homes, a question rises, is the absence of equipment and connectivity conditions to operationalize ICT in the school curriculum is the same worldwide, is it us, or is it something else that worries? In these socio-cultural, political and environmental spheres, education stands out, and sometimes it is one more of the problem or of the consequences. When we think of the world as a system, we find that very few countries have invested in education, and this investment is less than for other elements of the macrosystem.
The situation of Latin American countries is very similar not because they have a common trunk but because of the actions of many of their people, little or no freedom of expression and communication, social outbursts, problems with citizens and the icing on the cake which is the health problems that have worsened with the pandemic.
In the different countries, the pandemic has hit in the face those who knew and those who did not want to know and turned their backs on their educational reality. This adds one more element to the complex and critical situation of education that they not only hide, but also make up for national and international reports. Practically all over the world, it is known that in Latin America unresolved problems, and in many cases not even faced, such as quality, inequity and the progressive loss of public budget for education, have reduced citizens’ formation with required competencies. It is not a secret that there are high dropout rates and the percentage of students who do not complete their studies.
To worsen the situation, Piñero (2021) points out that in the struggle against COVID-19 in Venezuelan educational context, it was up to the national teachers to go through this situation, convoyed by many adversities. These teaching professionals, some with ICT training and others with little or no ICT skills, were faced with the challenge of teaching online. Although ICTs are here to stay in educational institutions, Latin America and especially Venezuela’s socioeconomic characteristics show an unequal context, which is more perceptible in pandemic time (p. 297). This reflects that difficult times are being lived, but this is not the time to stop to describe, it will be seen through the whole situation. National quarantine and students in schools and high schools continue to carry out their academic activities, now virtually. This measure surprised public and private educational institutions in Venezuela and other countries, which had to define an emergency contingency strategy to comply with the national decree, without losing their school schedule.
Neither they, nor many of us recognize that by neglecting one of the subsystems, entropy and lack of balance, even the most developed country can falter. At this time, the health problem that impacts society is intensified by the lack of prevention and planning of what would be done to deal with having all levels and modalities students at home, trying to continue their training to be a professional who participates effectively in society.
Currently, in social outbreaks or pandemics times, states and nations have taken the decision to suspend face-to-face classes for all education in its various levels and modalities and in many cases virtuality has been assumed and we go with children and adolescents in primary and high school from face-to-face to distance without training or motivation, we imagine then a group of children learning from their peers and interacting in different ways, learning from each other and from teachers, and when they do not understand something they raise their hands and ask questions live and direct, and these now without any training but what they have learned alone or from their parents must interact not only with materials but must learn alone and solve their learning problems with little or no interaction with the teacher and their peers.
The change to distance learning at all stages caught the educational community on the wrong foot. Either you adapted to the new conditions of distance learning or you per-ished, in a personal and social context. It was taken for granted that all content and competencies could be taught online, that parents and guardians could substitute teachers and home for school, without taking into account all the emotions involved (Rogero-García, 2020); (Rujas & Feíto, 2021).
Two examples should be pointed out, one from India and the other from Germany, where two young people who have access to technological resources feel frustrated and annoyed because they miss the contact and direct interaction with the teacher, their classmates and their school. It is significant to understand that game conditions are changed, the teaching and learning processes, although they have the same purpose, are no longer planned and managed in the same way, it is now more complex because it involves changes in practices, and there must be self-discipline and commitment to didactics and learning. Here the will plays a fundamental role, but it requires teachers, students, parents and representatives’ awareness, that is, the community in general to understand the importance of continuous training, that there is an investment of time, money and efforts on the part of all.
Teachers and students need to become familiar with platforms, tools, resources and the possibilities they offer, as well as the resources we have to develop the training process and make learning more dynamic according to the audience. Virtualization is a challenge for teachers and institutions, even more so when in many countries, face-to-face teaching is privileged, a system that teachers and students are used to, but even when the teaching and learning model used is traditional through lectures, which also generates feelings of anguish, distrust and uncertainty, that in many cases paralyzes and does not invite to action.
Education is the key to the development of any nation and in Venezuela, it is enshrined as a right in the World Declaration on Higher Education (UNESCO, 1996, 1998), which is intended to be imparted at this time in many countries and which will be virtual in nature when they develop the educational process of updating or training exclusively through virtual learning environments. The system's modality proposes knowledge dialogues that will allow inclusion and citizen training based on all thoughts currents through the planning, development and evaluation of initial and continuing education programs, supported by the ICTs application to the service of independent and flexible student learning (CPEAD, 2011).
For its implementation it is necessary:
To develop this work, we started from the premise that teaching and learning systems, regardless of their modality, have six subsystems that interrelate with each other. These are: guiding elements, purposes, goals that must be clear and in accordance to the country and the planet needs, so we will focus on the other subsystems such as teachers, students, evaluation, strategies, means and other resources. Although the little or no preparation of some of the actors.
It is important to take into account that not all contents can be seen at a distance, especially the teaching practice, UPEL distance education commission determined that they were not topics to be developed at a distance because students must show their competencies developed during the career. Another example is the skills and abilities needed to be developed in science laboratories, which are procedural and that at remoteness we will only see how conceptual contents are learnt and measured.
UNESCO has pointed out that pandemic had affected the education of more than 1.5 billion students worldwide. And if we add to that some social outbursts, the number is lost sight of. According to this world organization, the pandemic has led to a series of decisions, in many cases, without taking into account the country context and reality. Current university profiles must meet society needs and even project them.
According to UNESCO data, in Europe today, Sweden is the only exception to the rule of on-campus activities closure. In United States, measures are in the hands of state authorities, but the vast majority of campuses, particularly those of large public and private universities, had closed weeks before the government's intervention. By March 31, 2020, 185 countries had closed schools and universities throughout their territory, migrating from face-to-face to virtual teaching and learning methodologies.
In Latinoamerica, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Peru, El Salvador, Uruguay, Venezuela, Brazil and Mexico had suspended face-to-face classes in HEIs from March 12 stating a total quarantine it has even been thought that, until May 4, but today, in the middle of 2021, it is still being studied whether to return to face-to-face classes or not.
Each case shows a series of variants that range from virtual to assisted education, to the use of media developed by teachers (guides with content and homework that teachers give to parents, who take them home and then send them back to school for correction after they have developed them.) The latter is being used in some schools in Colombia that have not trained teachers to teach virtual classes and neither the school nor the students have access to quality internet, in their homes they only have radio and televi-sion, a cell phone with a data plan, so they use other ways. The unfortunate thing is that regardless of the way it is being used, teachers, parents and representatives are desperate for the amount of science, mathematics and other tasks that are sent to their children, complicating the existing situation that already harsh.
In America, digital platforms were enabled, such as those in Paraguay and Argentina, which are supported by different technological resources such as WhatsApp, videoconferencing, Classroom, while in Chile: a) instructional materials have been developed for academics, b) teachers and students have been trained on how to use technological platforms, programs and social networks, c) a virtual classroom has been created, in which the teacher can provide material that enriches his/her class, interact with students and, eventually, teach via videoconference. Now, have all countries committed themselves to this?
On Aprender Digital, a platform from the Colombian Ministry of Education, there are more than 80,000 digital educational resources, organized by grade level, ranging from videos to apps and games. This country has also begun to broadcast educational pro-grams on public radio and television, combining an innovative strategy with a more traditional one.
The UNESCO report points out that Internet connectivity in homes is very uneven in Latin America, with extremes in Chile and Bolivia, the former being the highest and the latter the lowest. While mobile lines statistics show that they are more positive than at home which would invite to develop a teaching using cellular telephony. Unfortunately Venezuela is the second lowest country only surpassing Cuba. That is to say, neither in our homes nor by cellular telephony, there is an objective opportunity to take advantage of technological solutions.
CECODAP (2020) refers in its report that the Public Services Venezuelan Observatory in September 2020, stated that 34% of households have internet access and in the country regions such as the east (59.1), the Andes (58.8), center-west (57.1) and Zulia (54.2), there is a deficient valuation of this strategy as that exceeds the global average, this is worse in the grandparents than in the parents or the one observed in the capital region (38.9). This result is related to prolonged power outages and Internet service failures, especially in the inner country states. The same report points out that the firm Consultores 21 for March 2020, indicates that internet access has been reduced to 38% in households and that only 56% of people have smartphones. Added to this, it is the lack of clear and uniform guidelines by the Education Ministry to develop distance education processes under quality criteria and especially adapted to the context imposed by the pandemic and the danger of destroying the future of children and young people by the violation of their right to education (Vargas, 2021).
Any institution wishing to implement face-to-face, blended or distance education based on ICT must manage policies to negotiate the necessary infrastructure, networked computers, servers and a good Internet connection with a bandwidth adequate to the undergoing process demand, without restrictions imposed on the community that are not based on the administrative and academic needs of the community.
Most of the educational institutions of any level in Latin America do not have information technology platforms, for different reasons: low or no budget to acquire equipment, those that do have many are out-of-date and in other cases laboratories and equipment have been stolen by the criminals.
On the other hand, their teachers have little or no expertise in the design of virtual classrooms based on the audience needs, media in different formats adapted to the contexts and characteristics of the audience or unfriendly, motivating, do not offer a range of options for the participant to interact and build their own knowledge, i.e. they are not prepared for this change. An example of this is higher education institutions in Paraguay, where only 10 out of 46 universities have an online platform for their students and trained personnel to manage it. This also applies to those that offer undergraduate and graduate degrees under the virtual education modality.
Some institutions have implemented an access system to synchronous or asynchronous information platforms, but few teachers have the skills to manage them, making higher education institutions initiatives invalid, because teachers updating and training process must be considered and should not be overlooked.
In order to design and implement the teaching and learning processes, the characteristics of the audience, the guiding elements, the strategies, media and resources best suited to mediate learning must be taken into account, which is why in order to develop virtual classrooms and instructional media, teachers must have the competencies to do so, that is, they must be teachers who take into consideration the teaching and learning theories as well as cognitive and affective aspects.
Since "there is no internet connection, we have to go to school to get the homework and hand it to their parents, who bring it back two days later and have to take new ones, which has overloaded the parents with work and anguish", in the best of cases, since informant 3 (Venezuelan, very low stratum) points out that "the children in the commu-nity where she lives have not known for a long time what it is like to enter a classroom or have anything related to their education".
The speed at which events have occurred, pandemic or social explosion, have not allowed the protagonists of the educational system to adapt to changes, bringing as a consequence that the learning mediation has changed from being face-to-face interaction between teachers and students, between students and their peers, here and now (face-to-face) to try to build distance learning that depends on how they have planned, it can be synchronous through chat (WhatsApp, Skype, Messenger) or asynchronous through non-instantaneous messaging, text messages, e-mail, among others, are increasingly friendly.
The system inputs had changed, the abilities and skills of the students are put to test and it is assumed that they are self-regulated, and the truth is that experience shows that neither teachers nor students are, self-regulation occurs in three phases referred to: a) the student´s experience or previous knowledge, which influence and occur before the efforts to learn, preparing the student for the learning process, b) execution or voluntary control, which involves the processes that are developed when the participant decides to self-regulate, becoming aware and acting accordingly, affecting concentration and execution, and c) self-reflection, which involves the processes that take place after learning and that influence the reaction of what has been learned to that experience. This process allows laying the foundations for future learning (Zimmerman, 1998).
Students should also be trained to learn to work not only with ICTs but also through ICTs. To this end, their technological competencies should be known because there are people who assume that because they are of a certain age they are experts in the area and in reality it is not so, not everyone is generation X or Millennial even if they are old enough to be so, if they have not been in contact with technology they are not.
The change of modality has complicated things for the system actors for different reasons: a) the content offered was not designed to be administered as a distance course b) there is no previous preparation, neither teachers nor students, to attend and study distance education courses c) there is disinterest due to the lack of social and experiential elements that accompany the face-to-face experience. Teachers consider that they do not have sufficient and adequate equipment to perform this work. Vargas (2021) adds that face-to-face contact, communication and perception of the students are essential to be able to use the virtual system.
There is a variety of findings in relation to teacher-student interaction and the compe-tencies to be developed.
Informer 1 (Venezuelan) points out that "teachers have wanted to make their classes at distance without taking into account the attention period or the difficulty of these, making it more difficult for parents to get their children to do their homework. Since the enormous amount of homework bothers and overloads the children with work for long hours".
Informer 4 (Venezuelan in Zaragoza Spain) says: "I like the virtual classes of my preschool daughter, they greet them every morning and the assignments are so varied and dynamic that the girl does them with joy. Thank goodness we have good internet so she doesn't miss any interaction".
Some parents who have not understood for different reasons, lack of motivation, time or knowledge tend to leave to school all their children’s training and do not participate even in the development of activities at home and the current time requires not only help, but practically to change their role and be the teachers of their children; and then another question rises, do they have the training to assume that role? Other negative aspects that can be pointed out are that parents who are not prepared to accompany their children in their homework, the lack of knowledge in the use of virtual environments, the difficulty in the case of several children to use their cellphone, and the cost of internet.
In addition, the diaspora of our brothers and sisters in the country, there are many low-income families, or immigrants who need open schools because they have to work and their employer or industry does not allow them to work from home, and bring their living income while they must now figure out how to participate in home schooling. Likewise, the loss of income leads to vulnerable segments of society and families falling below the poverty line. With the current salary in Venezuela, for example, no one can meet their basic needs and honor their commitments.
As for practicing teachers, continuous and permanent updating is required to reduce tension and lack of knowledge and allow them to face changes with openness, making the most of their advantages and potential both in person and remotely, and thus im-prove and optimize their performance as processes’ mediators in their functions within the school environment in order to create communication networks looking for different twists and applications.
Based on the scenario described and the authors' teaching experience, it can be stated that teachers require priority support, during the confinement period and in the school reopening processes, in at least the following areas:
By the way, Núñez, Gaviria-Serrano, Tobón, Guzmán-Calderón, & Herrera (2019), point out that "teaching practice should seek in students a better appropriation of knowledge from innovative and efficient strategies, not only for the development of theoretical knowledge, but also of practical skills necessary for professional practice" (p. 2).
In terms of strategies and media, new ways of teacher-student, student-student, student-student interaction, electronic materials (CDs, software, Web pages) must be taken into account, incorporating new ways of finding, accessing and discriminating information. Strategies should be designed and implemented by adapting the teacher's discourse, and his/her verbal and non-verbal expression, for which modeling is essential. In addition, strategies should encourage collaborative experiences through discussion groups, chat or e-mail.
This includes instructional actions related to the use, selection and organization of information so that the future teacher is trained as an information society citizen. For a correct use of ICT in teaching, Monereo (2004), considers that cyberspace is a window that forces to make thoughts explicit and is the ideal medium to develop learning strategies, and the teacher as a mediator accompanies the learner guiding him/her in decision making for this purpose, modeling, guided practice and then autonomous practice can be used, making the learner internalize it and apply it to any situation. This implies making use of virtual libraries repositories in a critical and responsible way to determine what can be used and recommended by the teacher and in the case of the student a differentiated search according to the goal to be achieved.
The learning evaluation is defined by Szczurek (1989) as "how well" the teaching and learning processes are carried out. The evaluation subsystem is the one that determines the degree of effectiveness and efficiency of a system; it is the process through which information is gathered to make value judgments about something.
The interviewees agree with the above and also point out that learning evaluation is fair, accurate, and timely and in conformity with the goals proposed in the course and is an evaluation that assesses both the process and the product to lead to success. When addressing the virtualization of education, it is not only essential the use of ICT applied to it, but each of educational actor must handle them properly and have the necessary info and technological resources, in addition, they must actively participate in student-centered educational situations, or roles exchange between teachers and students, which encourages student self-learning, self-regulation, the development of critical and creative thinking, through cooperative teamwork.
UNESCO (2020) proposes for learning continuum:
Finally, in order to use a virtual environment, it is essential to make yours these spaces with adequate training conditions for actors in the system: teachers, students and the necessary resources for information exchange, knowledge generation and new experiences.
In Venezuela’s today political, economic and social situation, there are more questions than answers; sometimes we wonder what the Venezuelan we are looking for is? The answer is in our culture, values, principles and definitely in our legal framework and it is there where our north is and definitely the basis for citizens’ formation that we need and that school must forge with basic competences referred to those attitudes, skills and knowledge that allow every human being to do some activity during the daily life and transversal competences, understood in all its dimensions and can be used in any field of work. In other words, they are higher skills that an individual possesses and their implementation allows him/her to develop some activity in an organizational environment (Cinterfor, 2004, p. 12).
There is a great variety of effects of the pandemic in the educational field, there are countries that are overcoming and have tried to remedy their failures, not so Venezuela, more and more shows improvisation and little possibility that teachers have for their socio-economic and social context in the country. It is important to move towards the development in their studies from which we can extract the importance of education and free training of teachers and administrators, in addition to highlighting the importance of education now and in the future and the role of women in the dissemination of knowledge in relation to COVID 19.
La tarea de la planificación de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, los problemas y estadísticas correspondientes y las soluciones implementadas por las diferentes regiones en estos momentos de pandemia. Durante el año 2020 hubo muchos cambios en diferentes niveles ambiental, económico, social y por ende el educativo con cambios relevantes, bruscos y en muchos casos sin planificación ni valoración efectiva de las consecuencias que han ocasionado.
The task of planning the teaching and learning processes, the corresponding problems and statistics and the solutions implemented by the different regions in these times of pandemic, as we have seen during 2020, there were many changes in different environmental, economic, social and therefore educational level had undergone relevant and abrupt changes that in many cases without planning or effective assessment of the consequences they have caused.
Teachers with little or no training in distance education who have steam developed, planned and executed planning and evaluations without measuring the consequences in the integral formation of children and young people, but also without taking into account that the development of all competencies cannot be done at distance that is the case of laboratories. The academic work has been forced and in many cases the learning process too.
An analysis and evaluation of the strengths and threats represented by the problems and scopes that distance education has evidenced during the current crisis is required to overcome pedagogical deficiencies, exclusion and social and gender inequality, in virtual and hybrid systems models (face-to-face and distance) for teaching. Added to this the lack or decline of research in the field of sciences and humanities.
Conflict of interests
There has been no conflict of interest.
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