Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): January-June [Edit closure: 01/01/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Gonzales Loli, M. R. (2021). Professional positioning through postgraduate academic competencies. Delectus, 4(1), 146-155. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i1.107
Industrialized countries realized that their companies' most effective resource was their workers, that successful work performance results were associated with academic degrees, especially master's and doctoral degrees. This research has had the objective of analyzing how postgraduate academic competencies have allowed master's degree holders to position themselves in the professional environment. The research is of explanatory scope, correlational design and the census sample was constituted by 81 master's degree students of the Federico Villarreal National University, graduated in 2016. Survey techniques and content analysis were applied. All the instruments were validated by expert judgment. It was concluded by demonstrating the importance of postgraduate academic competencies as a factor directly related to the improvement of the quality and labor positioning of professionals.Keywords: postgraduate; academic competences; professional performance; teaching management; quality and evaluation.
Within a globalized world in which humanity and therefore the society moves, it is necessary more and more, that the personnel that moves within the labor world has an efficient performance, and a safe way to obtain it is that in the companies or organizations they require talent by competitions. Competencies are understood as the abilities that a certain person has to successfully face any situation, context or objective. In this sense, we will rely on Mc lelland and Edgard Morín when they point out that competences are divided into those of knowledge, those of know-how and those of being.
Management by competencies is aligned on the basis of the capabilities and results required for competent performance, which is why it is essential to have the skills to face any challenge. If we talk about the work environment, we cannot leave aside the competencies acquired during university training, which are increasingly specialized at the undergraduate level and mainly in postgraduate studies. In this context, the concern arises to verify if, indeed, the competencies obtained in postgraduate studies have impacted the professional performance of the graduates, in this particular case of the Masters in Business Law of the National University Federico Villarreal (NUFV).
It is pertinent to take into account that NUFV has one of the largest numbers of graduate students in the area of law, so the purpose of this paper focuses on assessing whether the level of education received by the participants, translated into the skills they acquired, served to strengthen their skills from the personal, academic and ethical aspects that could eventually lead them to take up a professional position, access better positions, have better financial compensation and manage better professional expectations. The aim is to demonstrate that knowledge is power today, that the skills acquired in postgraduate studies have allowed graduates of the master's degree to be valued preferably within their workplaces, becoming leaders of change.
The competitions and their classes
Academic training has a high relationship with professional competitiveness. In this respect Feito (2008, p. 26) makes a question: Why does academic competence prevail? In reality, several reasons can be pointed out, but the main one has to do with the way of living in what is called a society of progress and growth. In today's population, the most important aspect of academic processes is no longer what coal or steel used to be, nor the selection of raw materials, but, as Aristotle indicated, it is the world of knowledge capable of transforming that raw material into a finished product. In most advanced countries, it has been decided to reformulate the academic curriculum through competencies that respond to the ability to interweave a series of practical knowledge skills while respecting values and principles (DeSeCO Project, 2005).
Therefore, the attitudes and capacities tend to raise the competencies required for professional development, but also require the action of the individual who is the added value that contributes and continuously develops the learning method. In this sense, the skills determine and become part of the individual's heritage, his individual and human capital (La Torre, 2016).
Nowadays, talking about education is talking about competitiveness, so education must be designed on the basis of competencies, considered as those social changes according to new events; it is a social practice that tends to interpret history and different cultures. Competitiveness means building a globalized education that eliminates all kinds of borders and that state policies seek the comprehensive development of people in all economic, social, trade, science, technology, communication, religion and family aspects. (García, 2008, p.16) Academic competence is understood as a quality by which the individual is constantly evaluated so that he or she is more competitive and can have better opportunities both in terms of work and remuneration; competitiveness means that the person can have better remuneration according to the knowledge acquired at a higher level and that his or her decisions are also in accordance with the knowledge acquired (Díaz, 2006, p. 128).
The term competition is generally used from different points of view, as a form of rivalry of a person who has the same goal or objective, as competition of the same trade or industrial activity, as a contradiction, as a broad or deep knowledge, or as a capacity (GarcíaPelayo, 2008, p. 66). Competence is the ability of the person to have higher knowledge than the other, ability is the possibility to learn faster and use it in practice especially in decision making (Fuentes, 2017, p. 19). It refers to the predisposition to act more effectively than others in order to assume challenges and relevant responsibilities, and that the results are efficient according to the objectives set, preferably being proactive (Fuentes & Ribes, 2014, p. 66). The competition will only have meaning if the performance is positive and that personal skills are built for a proven purpose without affecting the individual less to society, the competitive being will always be in constant preparation and knowing new things according to the progress of science and technology (García, 2011, p. 13). In short, academic competence is an attribute that every person has, through which it is denoted in their development and professionalism, act with decency and personal teaching, personal development is efficient therefore is a decision maker and quickly ascends to the jobs in the globalized market (Hatim & Arteaga, 1998, p. 45).
It is understood that professional performance is a process that allows the analysis of the professional attitude and the determination of how successful the academic work and the organization has been in achieving the proposed objectives, that is, the measurement of the academic performance in the fulfillment of the goals set and achieved according to the proposed objective (Robbins & Coulter, 2013, p. 12). Professional performance is considered as a series of actions carried out by professionals in different branches, in the specific case by graduate teachers in the constant teaching of master's degree students from different universities, disseminating their competitive knowledge according to new developments (Hatim & Gómez, 2000, p. 68). Professional performance is considered to be the complete evaluation of aptitudes that a person demonstrates in the exercise of his or her functions, especially at work. The evaluation is carried out considering the effort of the professional in the fulfillment of his or her tasks under concrete objectives and goals (Revelo, 2005, p. 78). In conclusion, it consists, then, in drawing up objectives and fulfilling them as such, putting the maximum effort under a correct and positive attitude, in this way satisfying the expectations of both the employer and society, and that this effort be recognized as such (Sum, 2015, p. 16).
Importance of graduate education nowadays
Graduate education is a very important educational commitment of schools and universities through which a professional can specialize in the branch he or she requires. Public and private graduate schools welcome all types of professionals, no matter what profession they are in, preparing them to be competitive and better able to make informed decisions (Manzo,2006). In order to obtain the best graduate education, it is important that the educational systems can be in line with the advancement of science and technology, for this purpose, the university must implement and equip the graduate school with state-of-the-art technology; likewise, teachers at this level must be constantly trained so that the final product that is the graduate is competitive at the professional level because he or she is a first-rate specialist.
Teacher management in postgraduate education
There are dimensions that summarize the postgraduate quality and quality of a university; extension, teaching, and research. These three dimensions must go hand in hand. Extension and teaching refer to the value given to the teaching staff, the creation of different programs, teaching-learning methods, according to new developments, the academic environment, the institutional setting and the social impact that may exist. Research constitutes one of the fundamental pillars of a graduate school, without it there are no degrees, much less competitiveness. Research leads the student to have new approaches in relation to the subject matter of research and to solve problems with knowledge of the cause duly materialized according to the literature (Tunnermann, 2000).
The Characteristics of the teaching-learning process as part of the postgraduate education system, presents the following characteristics
Ethical considerations: Since there is a synergy between professional training competencies and ethics, this is evidenced by the fact that the competencies of responsible professional training not only require curricular learning, such as taking courses in ethics and ontology, but are also based on the practice of those values, which assigns the professional an added value within the company, which, even though it is not stated in the requirements for accessing a position, will be what makes the difference and allows him/her to maintain and improve his/her work position. It is pertinent to point out that acting ethically in the performance of professional activities generates a multiplier effect in the work group. Finally, as Ibarra Guadalupe points out in his article " Ethics and Professional Formation " of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the two pillars of integral ethical formation are: integral formation in competences and ethical formation itself (Ibarra, 2018).
Quality and evaluation: Evaluation is one of the most important topics in postgraduate professional development. At an internal level, it is in charge of the National Superintendence of University Education (Sunedu), as an institution for the evaluation of the different universities and postgraduate schools in Peru. The accreditation of the programs and the corresponding certification are also evaluated at an international level. At the internal level, it consists of evaluating the quality and impact on graduate students of the teaching and implementation of the school with state-of-the-art technology in accordance with new developments. It should be noted, that quality and evaluation go hand in hand, for the same reason that the result obtained in the evaluation depends on the educational quality and how well the graduate institution is implemented, in that way the hope of achieving better results will be optimal and its recognition will also go hand in hand with competitiveness (Manzo, 2006, p. 89).
The research carried out is of a basic type whose purpose is to increase the already existing knowledge, the scope or level has been correlated because it evaluates the statistical relationship between the two variables. The research design is non-experimental and the approach is quantitative. The population considered was 80 master's degree graduates of Business Law from the Graduate School of the Federico Villarreal National University in the period 2005-2016 and the sample considered was the census population, that is, all 80 master's degree graduates. The techniques used were Documentary Analysis and Survey and as instruments we used the work sheets and the survey questionnaire with the Likert scale. With regard to the validation of the instruments, we resorted to the judgment of experts, who indicated that the instrument is suitable and adequate for measuring results. Finally, the information was processed in SPSS, 3.8.
Figure 1. It is considered that the Academic Capabilities obtained in Graduate Studies have allowed a better professional performance.
Figure 2. It is considered that the activities they perform in their work center are related to the practices and knowledge acquired in the master's degree, allowing them to perform with greater efficiency.
Figure 3. It is considered that the academic degrees of Master and/or Doctor obtained in postgraduate studies influence the obtaining of professional achievements such as recognitions and/or promotions granted by their work centers.
Figure 4. It is considered that holding the degree of teacher increases the professional's self-esteem and his absence places him at a disadvantage within the labor market.
Figure 5. It is considered that the skills acquired in graduate school have served and/or will serve to emigrate to better job positions outside your company;
We can point out that according to figure 1, there is a marked tendency of 80% compared to 20% of those surveyed when affirming that the Academic Capacities obtained in Postgraduate Studies, allowed them the best professional performance, it is understood that the tendency is due to their own experience since the knowledge acquired has allowed them to solve work situations where they applied the knowledge acquired in Postgraduate Studies. The above corroborates that academic skills are necessary for proper professional performance and even more so if you want to stand out in the work undertaken.
Figure 2 shows that 60% considered that the practices and knowledge acquired were closely related to the activities carried out in their work centers, compared to the position of some who consider that postgraduate studies are only theoretical and not related to their practical application in reality. This evidences and corroborates what has been pointed out, with respect to what has been stated in our hypothesis that academic skills should help improve professional potential.
It is interesting to verify that in parallel to the academic capacities obtained in postgraduate studies, a majority considered that the competencies acquired during their formative stage in postgraduate studies have allowed them to improve their professional positioning, existing a direct relation in their access to positions that entail promotions and advancements, which obviously also generate economic improvements for them.
It is important to verify that holding a Master's or Doctorate degree not only raises the graduate's self-esteem, but also makes the difference with respect to the professional stratum that has not achieved it, providing them with security in the responsibilities they assume, allowing them to climb a better position within their work environment compared to professionals who lack academic degrees. The reading of figure 4 is conclusive, because 90% of those surveyed say that the absence of a Master's or Doctorate degree places them at a professional disadvantage within the labor market, where currently it is no longer enough to hold only a professional degree, but that greater specialization is required.
Finally, it should be pointed out that, notwithstanding the discrepancies that may arise with respect to the skills acquired in postgraduate studies, the results show that the majority of graduates have been able to be more efficient, aspire and obtain a better position within their labor center and even migrate to better positions in other labor centers.
The Postgraduate Academic Competencies in the field of continuing education have allowed the positioning of the graduates obtaining greater work opportunities and multiple professional satisfactions. This confirms that academic competencies are necessary for the proper professional performance.
Postgraduate education constitutes one of the fundamental pillars for professional competitiveness at the national and international level, since professionals are trained and specialized, making their work more efficient and effective.
Graduate education can be measured primarily by its technical academic relevance, its relevance and social impact, having demonstrated that the academic skills obtained in graduate school have had a significant influence not only on personal satisfaction but also on obtaining promotions and incentives that have allowed them to improve their job positioning.
The process of learning and teaching, obtained in the postgraduate course are in accordance with the requirements of the reality and labor competitiveness, allowing to put in practice the acquired competences that have influenced potentially not only in the personal professional success but also in the business one.
It is recommended:
Promote Graduate Academic Competencies, so that they continue to have a positive impact on professional performance.
To disseminate the close relationship between the capacities obtained in postgraduate studies and the achievement of professional goals.
To encourage the academic capacities obtained in the postgraduate course, so that these are valued by the employer and obtain the economic incentives that correspond to them.
We suggest to other researchers that the study of postgraduate academic skills in professional performance is open to the enrichment and improvement of research, according to new developments and scientific and technological progress.
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