Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): January-June [Edit closure: 01/01/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Valle Díaz, F. R. (2021). Bottle Necks that Prevent the Reactivation of the Tourism Sector in the Apurímac Region, Peru. Delectus, 4(1), 93-106. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i1.104
The general objective of the research was: To diagnose the primary and complementary bottlenecks that prevent the reactivation of the tourism sector in the Apurimac region, Peru 2020. The research is located in the qualitative approach, of basic type, the design is non-experimental, linked to the study design of case-description. The main problem is the physical and legal sanitation of the tourist resources, otherwise it will not be possible to obtain control, without this it is not possible to inject investment in the local environment to recover and improve the facilities of the tourist resource. The complementary factors are: the accessibility and vulnerability of the tourist resource; the limitations of the hierarchy of the tourist operators because they do not reach minimum requirements; the overlapping of some competencies and functions of pertinent institutions, which make them duplicate actions, added to the imposition of processes that slow down the development of the tourist resource; the direction and inclination of growth, expansion of tourist circuits in a city of the Apurímac region; and the little sensitivity, cooperation to strengthen the guild of tourist operators.Keywords: reactivation; tourism; physical-legal sanitation.
According to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Latin America will have considerable economic and social effects. Likewise, ECLAC (2020) specified that the expansion of COVID-19 was combated under three strategies: self-isolation, quarantine and social distancing. These decisions served to flatten the contagion curve, but above all to give time for the logistics of health systems to be implemented to deal with contagion (p. 2). This crisis was born when there was full confidence in the globalization process, but the performance of the world economy was already weak, because the average performance rate of world growth between 2011-2019 was 2.8%, lower than the first decade which reached 3.4%. At the beginning of the COVID-19 expansion, the annual growth rate fell to 2.5%. (p. 2)
Similarly, there are no longer any optimistic estimates that the annual growth rate will drop by 1%. According to ECLAC (2020), the opposite is true; the rates border on the interval between 2.5% and 4.0%, the results of which are supported by supply shocks, sustained by public health measures to contain COVID-19, which degrade economic activity by closing factories, ceasing operations of various services, canceling activities and events, paralyzing and restricting travel, among others, in addition to causing a brake on the supply chain (p.3 ) In addition, the reduction in the consumption of goods and services, in the case of tourism and entertainment, will depend on the response of individuals and the reaction to the habit of self-isolation and social distancing, due to fears of contagion (p.3). One impact for Latin America is the lower demand for tourism services, which is made possible by travel prohibitions and restrictions, and the contraction could exceed 25% (p. 5).
Considering the situation in Peru, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism of Peru, reported in March 2020 the statistics (Tourism-Craftsmanship, 2020) according to Migrations Peru, in the month of March the arrival of international tourists reached 114,437 people, a variation of -69.5% compared to the same period in 2019; for April the fall exceeded 80% (p. 1). In addition, to the first quarter of the year 2020, the arrival of tourists through the Jorge Chávez airport contracted 23%, the Santa Rosa Complex in Tacna fell 26% and the Tumbes Complex fell 38% (p. 3).
It is important to note that the government in power established a series of measures to support the business sector, due to the state of emergency and the health emergency, Promperu (2020) within the tax system extended the Annual Income Tax Return for the year 2019, for the third category with net income up to s/. 9,660,000 soles or 2300 Tax Units (TU) for the third category with net income up to s/. 21,000,000 soles or 5000 TU. The Declaration and payment of the PDT electronic form for the period February 2020 was also extended for the third category with income up to S/. 9,660,000 and S/. 21,000,000 soles. For both cases, the Declaration and Payment of Monthly General Sales Tax Obligations was also extended (pp. 4-12). Likewise, in financial matters, Promperu (2020), the formal companies in the tourism sector could access the Business Support Fund Program for MYPE, known as BSF-MYPE, whose amount to be distributed was s/. 300 million soles, which supports new credits and the restructuring or refinancing of debts (p. 18) The second REACTIVA Peru Program, whose amount to be distributed was s/ 30 Billion, supports new credits for working capital (p. 23-25).
In spite of the economic policy of reactivation, sustained to support and to impel the enterprise sector, specifically for the tourism, these programs could not arrive at a first opportunity, to the contained businesses in the tourism sector; by the requirements that must reach like the amount of TU and even by a considerable amount of informal, nonhierarchical operators, with problems of operation license, among others. At the end of October 2020, after 240 days of quarantine, the Regional Government of Apurimac started a financial support program for this sector, which, in November 2020 is still in the dissemination and training stage.
However, in Peru, at the level of the Peruvian highlands, based on an interview with former Regional Director of Foreign Trade and Tourism of Apurimac , there are very few local tourism products, which have a complete support plant, which harmonizes with the culture, identity, technology, we refer as a reference to the cities of Lima and Cusco, because the rest of the resources and tourist attractions, present limitations, barriers, that generally are related to legal regulations, deficiency in local and sub national management, that does not contribute to improve the conditions of takeoff, these limitations for the tourism sector, are known in the natural language as "bottleneck", that means; "Obstruction", which means the process or requirement that every tourist resource needs for its categorization and hierarchization, and whose evidence prevents the development of a tourist resource. For this group of resources and attractions, BSF and REACTIVA programs are not available or cannot be accessed.
Valle (2020) indicates that in the Apurímac region, those provinces that have a potential for unique and incomparable tourism resources have been preserved due to geographical conditions, restricted accessibility, and the care of the rural community. The same author warns of the existence of barriers to improving or promoting a tourist resource, such as: it must have an inventory file along with physical and legal sanitation, statistics on the frequency of visits to the tourist resource, the predisposition of the municipal mayor to carry out intervention efforts for recovery and enhancement, among others (p. 320), in addition to which a considerable amount of tourist resources with potential are identified, with serious limitations to promote them (pp. 308-315). To date the inventory of tourist resources is the instrument of data collection; the inventory card, the format of filling in and requirements were modified, not extreme, integrating a section on the physical-legal sanitation, photographic and documentary support, precision on the services of support plants near and far from the tourist resource (Mincetur, 2018).
Given the context in which the research is being carried out, the delimitation focused on addressing the obstacles to the take-off and growth of tourism resources in the tourism sector, and the possibility of their use, the following general question was formulated to guide the research: What is the primary and complementary bottleneck preventing the reactivation of the tourism sector in the Apurímac region, Peru 2020? Therefore, the general objective that will allow structuring, specifying the research design, is the following: To diagnose the primary and complementary bottlenecks that prevent the reactivation of the tourism sector in the Apurimac region, Peru 2020. The purpose of the research is: to specify the processes or requirements, which must necessarily have evidence, that obstruct, slow down, the reactivation of the tourism sector in the Apurimac region. Likewise, the results will allow to know the current state of the tourism sector and will serve to make the officials responsible for the sector policy, aware, helping to formulate policies, strategies, objectives, goals; viable and sustainable, for the near recovery of the tourism sector in the Apurimac region, diminished by the measures taken to stop the propagation and deaths of citizens by the COVID-19.
The World Tourism Organization (WTO) agrees with the group Biosfhere of the Institute of Responsible Tourism, Biosfhere-WTO (2020) in its proposal for action for business recovery in the tourism sector, indicates that they should focus on what they can control in the business, take advantage of the variables at our disposal to start again better and stronger (p. 1) The proposal focuses on four strategies for sustainability, where the entrepreneur must adapt, transform and re-act in search of economic viability.
For Biosfhere-WTO (2020) economic sustainability means keeping communication channels alive, promotion, develop a strategic planning map where revenue management and cost control are required, taking into account three recovery scenarios; fast from 2 to 3 months; average from 3 to 6 months and slower more than 6 months; negotiate with clients who separated quotas or packages for a rescheduling with additional services, manage with suppliers the reduction of some costs and reschedule short term commitments by mutual agreement; integrate new partners to recover the business with a view to diversification, relaunching and maintaining the brand of the business based on new partner alliances and renegotiation with suppliers (pp. 8-12).
Socio-cultural sustainability means strengthening ties, relationships with staff supported by online activities; holding meetings to strengthen knowledge and communication with employees about the impact of the crisis; listening to suggestions, in order to improve strategies and procedures; providing clients with information about the environment, values and socio-cultural identity of the destination as well as the company's role with the environment (pp. 20-24).
About environmental sustainability, it is about developing videos or documentaries providing information about the role achieved by the company, its interventions and tests for customers, showing them the environmentally friendly procedures that the company embraces (pp. 27-29) and health sustainability, is to strengthen the culture of prevention of infection from a greater internal and external communication with customers and suppliers, establish hygiene plans for environments-fumigation-signaling, have environments for temporary or preventive isolation, perform drills (pp. 30-34)
Continuing, the MINCETUR, taking as direction and support to the sector policy, the recommendations of the WTO, proposed some considerations for technical assistance programs for the recovery of Tourism in the face of the crisis of the COVID-19, for this, it is difficult to recover in the short term the tourism sector (WTO,2020). Until now, the pandemic caused the fall of 22% of international tourist arrivals to the first quarter of 2020, the crisis reached a drop of 60% annually compared to the figures of 2019 (p. 2), this program is structured on three main pillars: economic, marketing and promotion, institutional strengthening and improving resilience.
Therefore, the summary of the strategies suggested by the WTO (2020) is the following: The first is based on studies for economic recovery, support for businesses through mechanisms such as taxes, fees, reorientation of the value chain based on identifying financial opportunities to strengthen the links in the value chain, all contribute to ensuring sustainability, these actions are framed within the objectives of Sustainable Development with respect to ending poverty, decent work and economic growth, reducing inequalities (pp. 5-9). The second is the revision of marketing strategies based on the identification of markets that can recover quickly and allow for the diversification of products based on planned promotions and minimize dependence on a single activity or market, in addition to influencing the expansion of innovative digital marketing activities. As before, these actions are framed within the objectives of Sustainable Development with respect to the end of poverty, decent work and economic growth, the reduction of inequalities, sustainable cities and communities, industry-innovation and infrastructure (pp.10-15). The third strategy is the joint work between the government and businesses to improve the services provided by the tourism support plant in terms of health, safety at work, promoting tourism governance, public-private alliances, and tables for concerted efforts. These actions are also framed within the objectives of sustainable development with respect to decent work and economic growth, quality education, gender equality, responsible production and consumption, sustainable cities and communities, and the alliance to achieve the objectives (pp. 17-21).
In addition, the MINCETUR through Promperú (2020) considered relevant to train through webinars to business associations, in order to face the crisis and post-crisis; it focused its recommendations on innovative solutions that meet new consumer needs (p. 1). For this, it is important to continue the work of brand positioning, it must remain in the mind of the client, this is achieved through digital media such as social networks or websites. It is urgent to make a diagnosis that allows to know the current situation of the business, in order to redirect to the diversification of services, the new markets must be sustained in the initiated diversification, strengthening the proposals of aggregation of services in the tourist packages or products (p. 3).
This research has a qualitative focus, due to the characteristics of the study variable (Hernández et al., 2014). It is a basic type of research, which allows us to provide current knowledge of the study variable (Carrasco, 2005). The design is non-experimental, linked to the case study design, because it analyzes from the description the processes or requirements that prevent the tourism sector from taking off (Ortiz & García, 2008). The research techniques were: The interview and analysis of documents (Phidias, 2012). The instruments for data collection were: interview form and document checklist. The units of analysis were tourism resources, existing bibliography and current regulations.
The results are obtained from experience, observation in place, interviews with officials, analysis of management documents, and Laws 24656, 24657, Ministerial Resolution N°. 493-2018 of Regulation of Archaeological Intervention of the Ministry of Culture-Peru, Regional Strategic Plan of Tourism Apurimac 2018-2025, the Guide for updating and inventory of tourism resources of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism-Peru.
The property of a good is determinant to be able to initiate actions, to dispose of the good; however, there is a problem, the majority of tourist resources, do not have physical-legal sanitation, for this reason the property is not defined, there is no full domain by an owner, so all the tourist resources are left in protection of the population where the tourist resource is located. In general, they are found in communal rural territories, which are registered in Public Records.
In addition, there are other problems in the process of physical-legal sanitation, such as: when the delimitation and demarcation of a portion of land that contains the tourist resource is carried out, several situations occur that are generated in the process such as:
Source: Google Earth, 2020. Image date 27/05/2020. Coordinates: South 13°16'27.05¨, West 73°16'04.93¨, elevation 3214 m, eye height 4.23 Km. Recovered: 28.11.2020.
Figure 1. The photographic capture shows the case treated about the Archaeological Complex of Sóndor, located in the district of Pacucha, province of Andahuaylas, it has more than 30 years of conduction by Local Municipality, it does not have physical-legal sanitation, it presents administration by Operators Association, approved and delivered by the Local Municipality, at the date of the present investigation, it is in conflict of functions with the Ministry of Culture. The recovery and exhibition work is only at 10% of its potential. It has two scientific publications. It is composed of ceremonial sectors, housing, cemeteries, and terraces.
Source: Google Earth, 2020. Image date 27/05/2020. Coordinates: South 13°33'57.64¨, West 73°25'25.88¨, elevation 3665 m, eye height 6.55 Km. Recovered: 28.11.2020.
Figure 2. The photographic capture shows the case of the Achanchicc Archaeological Complex, located in the divortium aquarum of the districts of Pacucha and Talavera, Andahuaylas province, which does not have a local municipality and physical-legal sanitation, and is protected by the Uchuhuancaray Rural Community. The work of recovery and exhibition is only in prospecting its potential. It exists in the first sector high violation (huaqueo) by the south entrance in the Archaeological Complex of Achanchicc. It is composed of ceremonial sectors, houses, warehouses, systems of terracing on slopes, channels of water supply, cemetery in caves (machays).
With respect to the Regulations of Archaeological Intervention, this does not define as first action of intervention the physical-legal sanitation, it is not decisive for them this initial process; they intervene making a declaration, without the previous process of sanitation, maintains a base of archaeological sites to intervene; however, they do not have specific regulations to carry out the physical-legal cleanup. On the contrary, the option they choose is to rely on the related regulations, because tourist resources of the cultural manifestations type, known as archaeological sites are located in the communal rural territories, registered in Public Records, and these archaeological sites are protected and safeguarded by the rural community without receiving any economic compensation.
To date, it is difficult to carry out a complete physical-legal cleanup; in the archaeological sites, because the Ministry in competition and function through its officials, present behavior of intervention and imposition, ignoring the possession, culture, protection, security granted by the rural community, transgressing the territory, seeking a higher independence affecting the livelihood of peasants.
Source: Google Earth, 2020. Image date 27/05/2020. Coordinates: South 13°33'41.57¨, West 73°04'32.65¨, elevation 3537 m, eye height 5.78 Km. Recovered: 28.11.2020.
Figure 3. The photographic capture shows the case of the Archaeological Complex of Llaqtapata-Qapac ñan-Qoriwayrachina, located in the divortium aquarum of the private partitions of Pacchani (to the south), Chinchay (to the north), Qoriwayrachina (to the east) and Ccerabamba-Andina Rural Community (to the south) province of Andahuaylas, does not have a local municipality, the physical-legal sanitation is in process, it has the support of the Rural Community of Ccerabamba-Andina and partiality of Pacchani, at the date of this investigation is not in conflict with the Ministry of Culture. The work of recovery and exhibition is only in prospecting its potential. There is a low vulnerability sector (huaqueo) at the eastern entrance of the partiality of Pacchani. It has two scientific publications. This archaeological complex has an Inca road, archaeological site, terraces, cemeteries in caves (machays) and foundry center.
In the case of an inventory of a tourist resource, coordinations are established between the authorities of the Ministries of Foreign Trade and Tourism with Culture. The study of incomplete physical-legal sanitation does not allow for the completion of the inventory technical file, because it is a requirement for the sanitation of the tourist resource. In the Regional Strategic Plan for Tourism in Apurimac 2018-2025, the physical-legal sanitation does not appear as a weakness of the tourism sector, nor does it appear as a strategy within a strategic objective, if physical-legal sanitation is considered literally within a strategic action, prioritizing those tourism resources that are contained within the tourism corridor, in order to carry out interventions with projects, it does not have any indicators.
The tourist resources in the Apurimac region, which have hierarchy 3, that is to say, they have minimum infrastructure, registration-control, maintenance, and formal administration are: Saywite stone, Ampay sanctuary and the Anthropological Museum in Abancay. The rest of the tourist resources that exist in the Apurimac region, have hierarchy between 1 and 2, they are in the process of adaptation and do not have minimum infrastructure. It is important to point out that the tourist resources located in the range of 1 and 2 are those that have a unique, ample potential, that in general have little accessibility, referred to motorized trails, bridle paths, trails, in addition whose nearby support plant has minimum services related to food, overnight stays, food prepared with local inputs that give a connotation, peculiarity by the customs of own. The overnight stay environment is ample, it is shared because the separate beds are contained in a single general environment, it is a large room converted into a communal overnight stay room. Only the tourist resources that are located in the parameter of hierarchy 2 are not violated to the extreme, it means that they have a state of anthropic intervention up to 30% of affectation to the tourist resource; therefore, it is possible to recover; however, those that exceed the percentage must have a preliminary inspection to verify the state of violation and the possibility of recovery.
Regarding the Regulations of Archaeological Intervention, it is decisive that in order to enter a tourist resource such as a cultural manifestation, in the case of an archaeological site or Kapacc Ñan, it is necessary to have an intervention permit when it is intended to make a recovery, whose actions demand excavation, reconstruction, installation, and safety conditioning. In the case of inventory of tourist resources, coordination is established between the Ministries of Foreign Trade and Tourism with Culture, the recovery study if it shows that the tourist resource is violated in 60%; it is unrecoverable, the inventory of the tourist resource does not proceed.
In the Regional Strategic Plan of Tourism Apurimac 2018-2025; it appears as a weakness of the Tourism sector, the poor state of the access roads, but it does not specify if they are the secondary, interior or national roads; it is not considered as a strategy, it is considered as a strategic action the accessibility of the roads to the tourist resources or attractions, it has an indicator, but it is not consistent, because it collects data on the number of tourist resources / attractions prioritized with adequate access roads, this indicator is very general and it expects data of medium term results. The indicator should collect data on: the number of internal roads extended with two layers that reach the tourist resource; another indicator, the number of improved bridle paths or Kapacc Ñan that reach the tourist resource; another indicator, the number of alternate roads for extended forecasting that reach the tourist resource.
A major problem to date is about the administration and control of archaeological sites, ecotourism resources; where there are several institutions with specific competences and functions. The provincial and district municipalities, which are in charge; that is to say, the administration, control, conservation of an archaeological site or ecotourism resource; they cannot carry out infrastructure improvements, service expansion, because they do not have a property title, they present management restrictions due to the inexistence of provincial and district tourism development plans; furthermore, they do not have urban development plans; therefore, it is very difficult to be able to reactivate the tourism sector from the potential of tourism resources such as: archaeological sites, lakes, natural shrub or forest forests, Inca roads. It complements, to everything described, regarding the convenience that a tourist resource be administered by the Ministry in competence and function or by the Municipal function; this last one, because it is linked and related to the population, there are positions of denial; for example, that the Ministry of Culture owns and administers the archaeological site, because all the income obtained is derived towards this institution, added to the fact that it is not allowed to carry out activities, recordings, or other actions without the permission of the Ministry of Agriculture inside the archaeological site.
An example is the District Municipality of Pacucha, located in the province of Andahuaylas, the archaeological complex of Sóndor, it is not owned by anyone, because the independence of the territory that comprises the archaeological site has not been formalized, the possession was had years ago by the Regional Government of Apurimac. Later, the possession of the property was transferred to the District Municipality of Pacucha, who, as the holder, gave the permit for the Administration to an association of peasant farmers, who provide the service of registration-control, orientation, and food within the Archaeological Complex of Sóndor.
Another example is the Pukllay carnival, years ago was under the direction and administration of the Regional Government of Apurimac, then passed to the Provincial Municipality of Andahuaylas, here in the organization and process also involved the Sub Regional Directorate of Foreign Trade and Tourism Andahuaylas, doubles functions such as: advertising flyers, organization of pre-events parallel, performs filming and documentary, intervenes in the welcome, reception, transfer, foreign and domestic participants.
Added to all this, the main cities of the Apurimac region, contained in the Regional Strategic Plan of Tourism Apurimac, they are Andahuaylas and Abancay, they do not have a Plan of Tourist Development of the province, in spite of the wide plant of support, semi categorizes and hierarchical, because the places, environments, where the tourist operators work have few requirements to reach a level of hierarchical structuring. It is also subject to the weak planning and management of urban infrastructure, because both cities do not provide conditions for Social Tourism, therefore its international categorization is minimal with gaps to be closed.
In the Regional Strategic Plan for Tourism in Apurimac 2018-2025, the progressive loss of institutionality appears as a threat to the sector. However, they do not consider that there are similar competences with another sector and even the functions and administrative interventions overlap, such is the case that both intend to have the administration of a tourist resource or archaeological site, for MINCETUR, it is imperative that the administration of the resource is in charge of the Municipality and a tourist ticket is applied, whose cost will have several components, and it will be possible to attend to the diverse needs not only of the archaeological site but also of direct operators, protective neighboring communities; for Culture, it is the responsibility of the administration of the archaeological site, in addition to channeling all income to a central fund and through operational plans to finance improvements or projects, whose process is indirect, you can also make agreements so that the administration remains in an association or cooperative with a percentage that would receive by the Administration is established income ticket.
Taking the background, we can confirm that the strategies, key steps, in order to recover the tourism sector, it will depend only and exclusively of the private initiative; because the plant of tourist support in the region Apurímac, only has three developed tourist destinations, which present data and presence in international institutions, they are located in the city of Abancay; the tourist operators, will have to diversify their business, to re-learn it, to adapt it, in such a way that the gradual lifting of the isolation and social confinement, allows the recovery and reprogramming of trips, that in addition assures the overnight stay and circuit tour. The gradual demand of national and foreign visitors, towards the city of Abancay will be conditioned to the services of security, health, protection, added to the old tourist packages, complemented by the conditioning of the infrastructure, impulse of the promotion in social networks and logistics of the service offered by the tourist operators, added the role of the guild of tourist operators, which is complementary, because it will allow to coordinate policies, actions of intervention, defense of the tourist operators in the city of Abancay.
For the cities of Andahuaylas, Aymaraes, Grau, among others, in the Apurimac region, tour operators will have to relearn, adapt and redirect the services they provide to other visitor markets, for the reason that tourism resources have bottlenecks that prevent them from being leveraged with the local operator, limiting their use. In addition, because they do not have defined circuits, they are unable to offer tourist packages that ensure a greater number of overnight stays, thus slowing down the injection of tourist spending into the local economy. For these cities, the gradual lifting of isolation and social confinement will only allow the strengthening of local tourism, but given the obstructions, conditions of the support plant, the gradual demand of national and foreign visitors will be minimal, in addition to the consolidation of guild representation will remain weak due to the inability of tour operators regarding the association, cooperation, integration.
We must bear in mind that, the management of the Regional Management of Foreign Trade and Tourism, during the last six years, managed to approve two investment projects, with public investment code and certified budget for more than 20 million soles for the city of Abancay, the other cities located in other provinces to date do not have investment projects to strengthen a tourist circuit, the information is contained in the Regional Strategic Tourism Plan Apurimac 2018-2025.
After the analysis of background, regulatory framework, experience, interviews, discussion, we come to the following conclusion:
The primary bottleneck is the physical-legal sanitation of tourism resources, it is the main procedure, otherwise it will not be possible to obtain control, without it, you cannot inject investment in the local environment to recover, improve the facilities of the tourism resource. The bottlenecks, complementary are:
Agricultura, M. D. (17 de Abril de 1987). Ley 24656: Ley General de comunidades campesinas. El peruano, pág. 18.
Agricultura, M. d. (17 de Abril de 1987). Ley de Deslinde y Titulación de Territorios Comunales. El Peruano, p. 19.
Apurímac, G. R. (2018). Plan estratégico regional de Turismo Apurímac 2018-2025. Abancay: GORE Apurímac.
Biosfhere-OMT. (2020). Propuesta de acción para la recuperación empresarial del sector Turístico. Biosfhere.
Carrasco, D. (2005). Metodología de la investigación científica: pautas metodológicas para diseñar y elaborar el proyecto de investigación (primera edición). Editorial San Marcos.
CEPAL. (2020). América latina y el caribe ante la Pandemia del Covid 19: Efectos económicos y sociales. CEPAL.
Cultura, V. M. (2018). Reglamento de intervención arqueológica. El Peruano, pág. 12.
Fidias, G. A. (2012). El Proyecto de Investigacion. Editorial Episteme,C.A.
Hernández, S. R, Fernández, C. C. & Baptista, L.P. (2014). Metodología de la investigación (sexta edición) Mc Graw Hill.
MINCETUR. (2018). Guía para la actualización e inventario de recursos turísticos.MINCETUR.
Ortiz F. G & García M. (2008). Metodología de la investigación. LIMUSA.
OMT. (2020). Programa de asistencia técnica para la recuperación del turismo de la crisis del covid 19. © Chanwit Whanset - Dreamstime.com.
Promperú. (2020). Ante la crisis, 6 consejos para empresas del sector turismo. Turismo in-Investiga e innova.
PromPerú. (16 de Abril de 2020). Medidas tributarias y financieras. ¿Cómo aprovechar las medidas de la emergencia nacional en el sector Turismo? Prom Perú.
Turismo-Artesanía, D. G. (30 de Marzo de 2020). Reporte mensual Turismo. Boletín de estadísticas de la Dirección General de Investigación y estudios sobre Turismo y Artesanía, pág. 5. https://mincetur.gob.pe
Valle Díaz, F. R. (2020). Potencial de los recursos turísticos como oportunidad de recuperación económica en la región Apurímac, Perú frente al Covid 19. Ciencia Latina-revista Multidisciplinar, 298-323. https://doi.org/10.37811/cl_rcm.v4i2.79.