Delectus copyright
Delectus - Scientific Journal, Inicc-Perú - [ISSN: 2663-1148]

URL: https://revista.inicc-peru.edu.pe/index.php/delectus

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus

Email: publicaciones.iniccperu@gmail.com

Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): January-June [Edit closure: 01/01/2021]


RECEIVED: 17/07/2020 | ACCEPTED: 13/12/2020 | PUBLISHED: 01/01/2021

Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)

Palomino Orizano, J. A., Zevallos Ypanaqué, G., & Orizano Quedo, L. A. (2021). Healthy lifestyles and academic performance in university students. Delectus, 4(1), 82-92. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i1.103


Healthy Lifestyles and Academic Performance in University Students

JUAN ABEL PALOMINO ORIZANO

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN ENRIQUE GUZMÁN Y VALLE, Perú
opjabel2002@yahoo.es
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2546-9684

GUDELIA ZEVALLOS YPANAQUÉ

CENTRO MATERNO INFANTIL RÍMAC, MINISTERIO DE SALUD, Perú
gudeobst@yahoo.com
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4197-6619

LINCOLN ABEL ORIZANO QUEDO

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN ENRIQUE GUZMÁN Y VALLE, Perú
abel_xx@hotmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2613-1901

It is a study that aimed to identify the relationship between healthy lifestyles and academic performance in a sample of 157 university students from the Faculty of Early Education of the Enrique Guzmán y Valle National University of Education, Peru. It was carried out by means of transversal descriptive correlational design. The data were collected through the Questionnaire of practices and beliefs about lifestyles, taken from Arrivillaga, Salazar and Gómez (2002) and the academic performance was obtained from the Records of weighted averages of academic performance issued by the Office of Registration and Academic Services of the UNE. Reaching the following results and conclusions: 85.99% of students had moderately healthy lifestyles and 67.50% had average academic performance or regularly achieved learning, indicating that the presence of moderately healthy lifestyles in students regularly favors their academic performance.  A positive mean Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient (r=0.6529) was also observed between healthy lifestyles and academic performance, indicating that higher levels of healthy lifestyles lead to higher levels of academic performance or learning achieved by college students.

Keywords: healthy lifestyles; lifestyles; health; quality of life, academic performance.

In the academic life of our university students there are imbalances in their lifestyles and habits, which undoubtedly affects their academic performance. In this sense, we want to demonstrate the existence of a relationship between healthy lifestyles and academic performance.

Nowadays, there are signs of sedentarism, bad use of time, inadequate eating habits, lack of organization of activities, consumption of alcoholic beverages and other substances, as well as sleep problems; being factors that undoubtedly affect the academic performance or learning of students and at the same time generate health problems such as: obesity, malnutrition, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, some types of cancer and depression. In this sense, in this research the objective was to determine the relationship between the variables healthy lifestyles and academic performance, in order to achieve this objective a population of 265 was delimited and a sample of 157 university students of the Faculty of Initial Education was randomly determined. The descriptive method of transectional correlational design was used. And it was found that 85.99% of students in healthy lifestyles achieved moderately healthy lifestyles and a 67. 50% of students had average academic performance or regularly achieved learning, indicating that the presence of healthy lifestyles in students regularly favors their academic performance; a positive average Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient (r=0.6529) was also obtained between healthy lifestyles and academic performance; concluding that if healthy lifestyles increase the probability of improving academic performance or learning in students, and if students practice sports activities, organize their time better, take care of their health, improve their eating habits and get adequate rest, they tend to improve their learning and academic performance.

The non-experimental method or descriptive method was used, because no manipulation or direct control of the variables under study was performed (Kerlinger & Lee, 2002) and the transectional correlation design was applied, because only the degree of relationship between the concepts or variables Healthy Lifestyles and Academic Performance (Hernández et al., 2014, p. 93) was measured and evaluated in a particular context and at a particular time. The instrument used to measure the healthy lifestyle variable was the Lifestyle Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire, taken from Arrivillaga et al. (2003) (Arrivillaga & Salazar, 2005, p. 32), from this instrument only the practices part was taken and some terms from the survey were adapted, the categories of qualification of the life style by dimension were: very healthy life style (VHLS), healthy life style (HLS), medium healthy life style (MHL), unhealthy life style (ULS) and non-healthy lifestyle (NHL) (Arrivillaga et al, 2003, p. 189), its content validity was found through expert judgment and its reliability was made through Alfa de Cronbach; and in order to collect the data of the academic performance variable, the Records of Weighted Averages of Academic Performance issued by the UNE's Office of Registration and Academic Services were used, the categories of academic performance ratings were: well achieved learning (WAL), regularly achieved learning (RAL), and deficient learning (DL) (Reyes, 2003, p.40). The study population consisted of 265 students from the third, fifth, seventh and ninth cycle, enrolled in the regular regime of the 2015-I semester at the Faculty of Early Education of the Enrique Guzmán y Valle National University of Education, and the sample was determined at random making a total of 157 students, as indicated in Table 1.

Table 1.
Population and samples by strata
Strata Cycle of studies Population size by strata Sample size by strata
Third Cycle 71 42
Fifth Cycle 59 35
Seventh Cycle 83 49
Ninth Cycle 52 31
Total 265 157
Source: Statistics from the Registration Office and Academic Services of the UNE

For this purpose, the data obtained in the Lifestyle Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire and in the Weighted Average Records of Academic Performance were analyzed; in this way, the results were systematized through contrasts to point out the existing relationships between healthy lifestyles and academic performance in those students. The analysis of the data was carried out by means of the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, through the STATA-12 program, obtaining the following results:

Figure 1 shows healthy lifestyles in the physical activity and sports dimension of students with a higher percentage (56.1%) of students having a moderately healthy style, and a lower percentage (7%) of students having a non-healthy style. This indicates that the majority of students have a medium-healthy style in the physical activity and sports dimension.


Figure 1. Healthy Lifestyles in the Physical Activity and Sports Dimension

Figure 2 shows the healthy lifestyles in the recreation and leisure management dimension of the students, with a higher percentage (56.7%) of students having a moderately healthy style, and a lower percentage (7%) of students having a non-healthy style. This indicates that the majority of students have a moderately healthy style in the Recreation and Leisure Management dimension.


Figure 2. Healthy Lifestyles in the Recreation and Leisure Dimension

Figure 3 shows the levels of healthy lifestyles in the self-care and health care dimension of students, with a higher percentage (64.3%) of students having a moderately healthy style, and a lower percentage (3.2%) of students having a non-healthy style. This indicates that the majority of students have a medium-healthy style in the self-care and health care dimension.

;
Figure 3. Healthy Lifestyles in the Self-Care and Healthcare Dimension

Figure 4 shows the healthy lifestyle levels in the eating habits dimension of the students, with a higher percentage (51%) of students having a moderately healthy style, and a lower percentage (7%) of students having a non-healthy style. This indicates that the majority of students have a moderately healthy style in the Eating Habits dimension.


Figure 4. Healthy Lifestyles in the Eating Habits Dimension

Figure 5 shows the healthy lifestyle levels in the dimension: consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other student drugs, with a higher percentage (46.5%) of students having a moderately healthy style, and a lower percentage (2.5%) of students having an unhealthy style. This indicates that the majority of students have a moderately healthy style in the alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use dimension.


Figure 5. Healthy Lifestyles in the Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs Dimension

Figure 6 shows the healthy lifestyle levels in the sleep habits dimension of the students, with a higher percentage (64.3%) of students having a moderately healthy style, and a lower percentage (2.5%) of students having a non-healthy style. This indicates that the majority of students have a moderately healthy style in the Sleep Habits dimension.


Figure 6. Healthy Lifestyle Levels in the Sleep Habits Dimension

Figure 7 shows healthy lifestyles in general, with a higher percentage (85.99%) of students having a moderately healthy style, and a lower percentage (14.01%) of students having a healthy style. This indicates that the majority of students have a moderately healthy style in general.


Figure 7. Overall Healthy Lifestyle Levels

Figure 8 shows the levels of academic achievement in general, noting that a greater percentage (67.50%) of students are at an average level in academic achievement or regular learning achieved, and a smaller percentage (9.60%) are at a low level in academic achievement or poor learning. This indicates that the majority of students are at an average level of overall academic achievement or regular learning achieved.


Figure 8. Overall Academic Performance Levels

According to Table 2, Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient for physical activity and sport, and academic performance is r=0.8019, with a considerable degree of positive correlation, according to the correlation indices proposed by Hernández et al. (2014, p. 305). This is a significant correlation since p=0.00 is less than the significance level of 0.05.

Table 2.
Correlation between physical activity and sport, and academic performance
    Physical activity - sport Academic Performance
Physical activity and sport Spearman's Rho Correlation 1 0.8019(**)
Sig. (bilateral)   .000
N 157 157
Academic Performance Spearman's Rho Correlation 0.8019(**) 1
Sig. (bilateral) .000  
N 157 157
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral)

According to Table 3, Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient for recreation and leisure management, and academic performance is r=0.7386, with a mean positive correlation degree. This is a significant correlation since p=0.00 is less than the significance level of 0.05.

Table 3.
Correlation between recreation and leisure management, and academic performance
 

 

Recreation and free time management Academic performance
Recreation and free time management Spearman's Rho correlation 1 0.7386 (**)
Sig. (bilateral)   .000
N 157 157
Academic performance Spearman's Rho correlation 0.7386 (**) 1
Sig. (bilateral) .000  
N 157 157
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral)

According to Table 4, Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient for self-care and academic performance is r=0.7425, with a mean positive correlation degree. This is a significant correlation since p=0.00 is less than the significance level of 0.05.

Table 4.
Correlation between self-care and academic performance

    Recreation and leisure management Academic Performance
Recreation and leisure management Spearman's Rho Correlation 1 0.7386 (**)
Sig. (bilateral)   .000
N 157 157
Academic Performance Spearman's Rho Correlation 0.7386 (**) 1
Sig. (bilateral) .000  
N 157 157
    Self-care and medical care Academic Performance
Self-care and medical care Spearman's Rho Correlation 1 0.7425 (**)
Sig. (bilateral)   .000
N 157 157
Academic Performance Spearman's Rho Correlation 0.7425 (**) 1
Sig. (bilateral) .000  
N 157 157
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral)

According to Table 5, Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient for eating habits and academic performance is r=0.5599, with a mean positive correlation degree. This is a significant correlation since p=0.00 is less than the significance level of 0.05.

Table 5.
Correlation between eating habits and academic performance
  Eating habits Academic Performance
Eating habits Spearman's Rho Correlation 1 0.5599 (**)
Sig. (bilateral)   .000
N 157 157
Academic Performance Spearman's Rho Correlation 0.5599 (**) 1
Sig. (bilateral) .000  
N 157 157
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral)

According to Table 6, Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient for alcohol, tobacco and other drug consumption and academic performance is r=0.5321, with a mean positive correlation degree. It is a significant correlation since p=0.00 is less than the significance level of 0.05.

Table 6.
Correlation between alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and academic performance
    Consumption of alcohol, tobacco - other drugs Academic performance
Consumption of alcohol, tobacco - other drugs Spearman's Rho Correlation 1 0.5321 (**)
Sig. (bilateral)   .000
N 157 157
Academic Performance Spearman's Rho Correlation 0.5321 (**) 1
Sig. (bilateral) .000  
N 157 157
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral)

According to Table 7, Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient for sleep habits and academic performance is r=0.8270, with a considerable degree of positive correlation. It is a significant correlation since p=0.00 is less than the significance level of 0.05.

Table 7.
Correlation between sleep habits and academic performance
    Sleeping Habits Academic Performance
Sleeping Habits Spearman's Rho Correlation 1 0.8270 (**)
Sig. (bilateral)   .000
N 157 157
Academic Performance Spearman's Rho Correlation 0.8270 (**) 1
Sig. (bilateral) .000  
N 157 157
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral)

According to Table 8, Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient for healthy lifestyles and academic performance is r=0.6529, so, with a mean positive correlation degree. This is a significant correlation since p=0.00 is less than the significance level of 0.05.

Table 8.
Correlation between healthy lifestyles and academic performance
    Healthy Lifestyles Academic Performance
Healthy Lifestyles Spearman's Rho Correlation 1 0.6529 (**)
Sig. (bilateral)   .000
N 157 157
Academic Performance Spearman's Rho Correlation 0.6529 (**) 1
Sig. (bilateral) .000  
N 157 157
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral)

The majority of students in healthy lifestyles (85.99%) have a medium healthy style and in academic performance (67.50%) have an average level or regular learning achieved, and in smaller percentages of students in healthy lifestyles (14.01%) have a healthy style, and in smaller percentages of students in academic performance (22.9%) have a high level or well achieved learning, and only 9.60% achieve a low level in academic performance or poor learning. This indicates that the presence of moderately healthy lifestyles in students favors academic performance at an average level or regular learning achieved.

There is a Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient of r=0. 8019 between the variables physical activity and sport, and academic performance, with a considerable and significant positive correlation, means the better healthy style in physical activity and sport students have the better their level of academic performance or learning, because physical activity and sport non-competitive and effortless, helps release serotonin, reduces anxiety and tension, improves self-control and emotional regulation, reduces depression and increases the sense of well-being so that students can better plan and enjoy their studies (Lema et al, 2008, p.73).

There is a correlation coefficient of Spearman's Rho of r=0.8270 between sleep habits and academic performance, with a considerable and significant positive correlation degree, that is, the better healthy style in sleep habits students have, the better their academic performance or learning will be, because a good sleep and what is necessary contributes to the student's recovery of energy so that he can better undertake their academic activities, sleep restores the body, mental, physiological and biochemical functions that constitute a need that has to be satisfied in quality and quantity (Lema et al, 2008, p. 74).

We also obtained a correlation coefficient of Spearman's Rho of r=0.7386 between recreation and leisure time management and academic performance, with a medium and significant positive correlation degree, that is, the better the students' healthy style in recreation and leisure time management, the better their academic performance or learning will be: Since students should choose their activities freely to satisfy their personal needs, have a time for rest, fun, recreation and personal development, this will generate personal satisfaction and tranquility in the students' academic tasks (Motto et al, 2008, p.73).

Likewise, a Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient of r=0.7425 was obtained between self-care and medical care, and academic performance, with a medium and significant positive correlation degree. For personal self-care maintains life, health and well-being and this generates security in students to be able to continue with their studies, and in order to follow their usual personal and group activities (Carrillo and Amaya, 2006, p.43).

It was also obtained a Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient of r=0.5599 between eating habits and academic performance, and a Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient of r=0.5321 between alcohol, tobacco and other substances consumption and academic performance, both correlations with a medium and significant positive correlation degree. Because the adequate eating habits favor the recovery of energy and the reestablishment of the organism to continue with our daily activities, and the control in the consumption of alcohol will generate a good state of health conducive to the learning of the students (Carrillo & Amaya, 2006, p.35).

Finally, there is a Spearman's Rho correlation of R=0.6529 between healthy lifestyles and academic performance, with a medium and significant positive correlation degree, which indicates that the healthier the lifestyles, the better the conditions for student learning (Evaristo, 2012, p. 45).

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