Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): January-June [Edit closure: 01/01/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Quinto Román, M. C. (2021). Communication styles in teachers of public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020. Delectus, 4(1), 66-81. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i1.102
I.E.P. RAMÓN CASTILLA” CANGALLO - AYACUCHO, Perú
The objective of this research was to compare the communication styles in the teachers of public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020. The type of research was substantive descriptive, descriptive level, comparative cross-sectional design. The population consisted of 235 teachers and the sample was 93 teachers, which was obtained through a stratified probabilistic sampling. In this investigation, the technique used was the survey with its respective instrument, the questionnaire for the collection of data and the same that were processed through the SPSS program. Resulting in the Mann-Whitney U-statistics the value of 0.774, which is higher than 0.05. This result allows us to conclude that, at a 95% confidence level, the communication styles in the teachers of the public educational institutions researched are not very differentiated.Keyword: communication styles; assertiveness; teachers.
Communication styles are considered so essential when interacting in educational institutions because they are the place where future citizens are formed and for that, teachers must identify them in order to have a good communication with their students. Under these ideals, a revision of the different theoretical contributions from the theory of communication is carried out. This theory considers communication as a term that has been researched from different positions, and it has come to be affirmed as a social process in which the interlocutors use it for different communicative purposes; that is, it responds to the particularity of each individual as a rational being when using a linguistic system. In this scenario, Watzlawick (2009) assumes the position that it is a "set of elements in interaction where any modification of one of them affects the relationships between the other elements" (p. 46). In other words, the multiple interactions that take place through the interlocutors, from the human position, imply a change in the links between peers.
On the other hand, Lange and Jakubowski (1976) show, from a posture related to assertiveness, that it is related to the manifestation of emotion, idea, reflection, postures, assumptions, etc. and prioritizes affection and comfort as a particularity of the same interaction with others. He also mentions that communication, from this point of view, in accordance with Serrano (2007), implies having respect for the opinions of others (interact) to ours where it is not a matter of seeing that everyone comes to think the same way, but that one must assume the posture of empathy in order to be able to establish bonds that do not harm anyone; all this leads to each one expressing his ideals in a horizontal way, without limitations and with the possible sincerity.
For this, the term communication is framed, from Gibson's perspective (1993), as that "transmission of information and understanding through the use of common symbols. The symbols mentioned can be both verbal and non-verbal" (p. 43). Although it is true that communication is the transmission of a certain information, it is known that it acquires different modalities (linguistic and non-linguistic), but the purpose is not achieved when different codes are presented. In that sense, the code must be the first common element that the partners must have in order to develop a more appropriate communication. In this regard, Chiavenato (2000) indicates that it is related to the "process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. Therefore, all communication influences at least two people: the one who sends the message and the one who receives it" (p. 53). From this appreciation, it is assumed that communication is also subject to a rapid understanding in which the interpreter plays a very important role, and in addition, other aspects surrounding the users themselves in their interrelations are added. Therefore, communication is that social process where symbols are used in a verbal and non-verbal format and which implies an assimilation of information among the people who participate in these activities.
On the other hand, it is considered elementary to consider the forms of communication and they are described in three points. The first one is active listening, which consists, according to Crespo (2007), in not only having the sense of hearing active, but also implies the presence of the other senses as well as the presence of our reasoning and imagination, because it implies having a correct assimilation of the information and adding the presence of all the paraverbal elements that the speaker may use when transmitting the message. In this sense, this form implies respecting the information that is given to us and also, as a key element, giving the confidence of being heard to the person who plays the role of codifier. Along the same conceptual line, Fagot (2014) states that active listening means paying attention to the words that another person communicates and reaching the essence of the message without making judgments in advance that allow us to understand the feelings of others.
The second is portrayed in the freedom of expression that is conceptualized under the terms of Luna (2012) as "a fundamental right that every human being has to express feelings, ideas, thoughts without being harassed because of what they say. It represents the possibility of carrying out research, of accessing information, and of transmitting it without barriers" (p.43). The key idea of this form is related to the absence of communicative barriers that, sometimes, harm the normal development of the same and therefore, no person is subject to the impediment of communicating his ideals in the margin of respect because it does not mean that we should say everything that we want, but to find the most appropriate terms to engage in a comprehensive dialogue. The third and final form, which is part of this work is decision-making. It is known, from Wharton's position (2001) as the "process by which a choice is made between options or ways to solve different life situations in different contexts: at work, family, personal, emotional, etc." (p. 72). The multiple realities that surround the person lead to having to make a decision and this decision must be subject to the two previous forms that were developed. Finally, it is always oriented to the solution of difficulties found in the circumstances or contexts in which one participates or interacts with others.
In addition to this, the term style refers to the particularity of each subject or person and in terms of sociolinguistics constitutes an element proper to variations on a personal level; this means that it is presented on a diaphasic level of the language. Given this clarification, communication styles are considered, according to Orellana, Bossio and Carhuallanqui (2016), as a means to have an adequate interrelationship with others and to promote a harmonious coexistence in any space, but inside an institution, it is oriented to achieve a positive climate of participation and the achievement of the objectives as an institution. Vértice (2009) indicates that an indispensable element that influences styles is the context and personal characteristics of each person. These two aspects are presented at the moment of establishing communication with others and will lead to assuming a certain style. On the other hand, Carrasco (2006) states on this point as the reflection of the different behavior patterns that are evident at the same moment of the interactions with the rest. This author makes a classification of four styles: assertive, aggressive, submissive and the aggressive-passive.
This classification is added to that established by Difabio de Anglat (2002), who from a position of assertive communication mentions three styles: passive, aggressive and assertive. Finally, from the multiple meanings that are developed in the upper lines, it is assumed that the style of communication responds to the particularity of each individual and which is subject to the circumstances that surround it and also depends on the interactions that occur between people. Therefore, in correspondence to the established objectives and due to the nature of the research; three styles of communication are assumed because they are the most usual among people.
The passive style leads to identify behaviors related to submission; this means that people who have this style stop valuing themselves, do not have attitudes to defend themselves and stop following their ideals even though it causes them great suffering. They accumulate a great resentment, anger, desperation and sadness. In this regard, Román (2005), quoted by Paau (2015), states that this is the limitation that is presented in the communications. It can be said that a free, horizontal communication circuit does not prevail because they prefer to keep silent or to be quiet. People who have this style are very shy, with low self-esteem, insecure in their activities, afraid to communicate their ideals to others. Having this nature, with the passing of the years, if it were inside an institution, they will have negativism present in their actions because they do not feel capable of progressing. Although it is true that these people camouflage themselves by means of terms that refer to prudence and education, this does not justify their actions, because in any case, inhibition is made known in them. Therefore, they will always be fleeing from conflicts through justifications that according to them are the most correct in their interrelations.
On the other hand, it can be said that this style is far from assertiveness and that is why they call it the lack of assertiveness and, as was said in the previous paragraph, it gives priority to submission, absenteeism of opinions, emotions and letting others make the decision for them without considering their opinions. As a complement to this, Covey (1997) indicates that these subjects are within the lose-win paradigm because they prefer to put aside their needs for those of others and also to avoid the confrontations that arise in interrelations. In this sense, this author mentions some aspects that characterize this style. First, the verbal elements that are always presented in a modest way and with a hesitant low voice. Second, the non-verbal elements are aligned to have a closed posture, forced movements that are presented in the extremities, absenteeism to the visual contact and a very accelerated heart rate. The consequences of this style are evident when the rights are left aside, a person who will have a deplorable self-esteem, disinterest in the activities he performs and expects others to decide about his future. Finally, in order to conclude with this style, Vieira (2007) indicates that this style in students, it is presented in the same way where initiatives will be left aside as well as the attitude of postponing the multiple responsibilities they must fulfill and, essentially, a shyness to express or make known emotions and opinions.
On the other hand, the aggressive style is characterized by the manifestation of ideals, thoughts, assumptions, comments, but without considering the state of others. It can be said that it does not take into account the perceptions or emotions it may cause its listeners when transmitting information. His particularities are evident when he does not respect the ideas of his fellowmen and always seeks to impose his thinking with which he expresses inappropriate qualities. In terms of Covey (1997), he states that he focuses on authoritarianism, aggressiveness is oriented towards submission because he seeks to subordinate through personal ideals.
In this respect, Román (2005, quoted by Paau, 2015) proposes about this style as a direct communication where the person can express his or her opinions, but does not consider the emotional state of those who receive the message. People with this style damage the self-esteem of others and do not measure the consequences they can leave. Irritability is an essential aspect in these people and therefore, inside the entities, they frighten the users. It can be said that this style is subject to superiority, selfishness, stereotypes. The constant use of this style leads to the subject who presents it to take action on absenteeism because it comes to know their behavior and the fact of knowing it makes you feel guilty, coming to take the decision to distance themselves from the rest or people around him. This being the case, this individual will have fewer opportunities to interact and, if he is a professional, he will have limited academic progress. The verbal elements that are characteristic of this style are the imposing and imperative expressions through very high tones of voice and clear and accelerated speech. Among the non-verbal elements that characterize it are an upright forward posture, a tense faciality and wrinkled eyebrows, it uses threatening gestures and invades the spaces of its peers. The result of this style is that he does not respect his rights, has low self-esteem, has no control over his activities and thinks he can make decisions for others. It is assumed that students or any individual with this style manifest their ideals, emotions, and affections in an intolerant, compulsive manner. The latter refers to punishment and intimidation. The first is evidenced by insults, physical aggression, and slander, and the second by verbal notifications that will lead to a certain punishment.
Finally, the assertive style characterizes that person who expresses his emotions, ideals, desires, comments without causing any harm; this means that it does not bother and does not limit the rights of other subjects. To have this style in human behavior leads to have present in which moment to participate, communicate emotions and thoughts to facilitate the intervention of those around. They are also willing to intervene when their rights are limited, expressing their positions either for or against, depending on the situation they are in. The manipulation in them does not work as in the passive or perhaps by means of violent actions that the aggressive one adopts.
This assertive communication style is very necessary since its effectiveness within an educational communication, from Elizondo's perspective (2003), is conceptualized as that "ability to express thoughts, feelings, and perceptions, to choose how to react and speak for the rights of the person when appropriate" (p. 17), because it is oriented to the well-being of all in the multiple activities in which one participates. Given this situation, Covey (1997) indicates that this modality seeks greater progress in human interactions because it is oriented towards both personal and collective (win-win) achievement.
In order to conclude, it is necessary to mention the contributions made by Román (2005, quoted by Paau, 2015), who mentions this style under the terms of an open, direct communication that does not seek negativity in individuals since it implements mechanisms to solve any adversity that may arise. This way of acting leads to having to practice certain behaviors regarding when it is time to intervene, withdraw from a conversation so that an appropriate dialogue is cultivated where no one is minimized or relegated. Most of the authors consider that they are the ideal people because they have a balanced behavior, impeccable image, appropriate self-esteem. The most interesting thing about this style is when the person who possesses it adapts to the reality in which he or she will have participation and will also be a facilitator in resolving the communication difficulties that are typical of misunderstandings. It is essential to mention that the verbal traits of these people are subject to having direct communication, exaltations, verbal reinforcements and answers to the questions according to how they were formulated. The non-verbal elements they possess are frontal orientations, social distance to exchange ideals, appropriate gestures that accompany the dissertations they give, a fixed gaze, and calm hands because they seek to form bonds of friendship. The consequences that this style can bring are framed to the protection of personal and collective rights, they feel satisfied by the actions they carry out, they trust in themselves and, essentially, they make their own decisions in front of a certain subject or situation. Therefore, these people, according to Mandel (2016), they have a positive personal attitude and are not afraid to face the difficulties or adversities that may arise and in which they will intervene in a balanced way and respecting everyone, if necessary they will recognize their weaknesses, errors without the need to look for justifications.
Among the empirical studies, we take the study of Alonso (2018) who in his research "Social skills: communication styles in conflict resolution in teachers of the IES Nervión in the town of Seville". The investigation had as objectives the identification of the communicative styles, the differences and on the use of the same ones. Study that responds to a quantitative paradigm, descriptive method, not experimental, collected the data through a questionnaire. It concluded that the communication styles developed in the institution are mostly appropriate, but there is also a minimum amount that responds the opposite.
Similarly, Gómez (2014) in his research entitled "Assertive communication for the minimization of conflicts in the school-community relationship in the Trilla sector of the Municipality of Peña, State of Yaracuy, Venezuela", had the objective of analyzing the study variable and to make known the relevance of communication when resolving difficulties or unfavorable situations that may arise within the institution, working with four teachers in a non-probabilistic, intentional manner. Work of type: descriptive, phenomenological method.
Also, Segura (2017) in his work " Communication styles for dealing with conflict in marital coexistence". This study is presented with the purpose of determining the styles of communication as well as making a comparison of them. Type of research that was mixed and used a questionnaire to collect information. It concludes that, from the studies and conceptual framework, an aggressive-passive and submissive communicative style is evident.
In the same way, the work of Toc (2016) entitled "Diagnosis of communication styles in the collaborators of the technical institute of training and productivity, North Region, Cobán, Alta Verapaz" is added. The objective of this research was to identify the communication styles in the collaborators of the Technical Institute of Training. Work that responds to the descriptive type, basic level, to collect the data used a test. It concludes that the predominant styles are assertive and aggressive-passive.
There is also the study by Estrada and Graterol (2015) under the title "Assertive communication as a pedagogical strategy in interpersonal relationships among teachers of education for work, commercial sub area (CASE: U. E. P. "Santa Ana", from the city of Valencia- Edo Carabobo". The objective of this work was to establish assertive communication as a pedagogical strategy in the interpersonal relations between teachers. The research responds to a quantitative, descriptive, field design type. The instrument used to collect the information was the questionnaire. It was concluded that assertive communication and interpersonal relationships are not optimal.
Also indicate the research of Tapahuasco (2018) in his study entitled "Assertive communication style and organizational commitment of teachers of the I.E. of the Main Square of Vitarte, 2017". The study had as objective to determine the relationship between both variables and assumes a methodology from the quantitative approach, correlational type, non-experimental design, using a questionnaire to collect the data. Affirming that there is a very high positive relationship (Spearman's Rho= 0.849).
Finally, mentioning Morales (2018) in his research "Communication styles and work performance of teachers in E.I. No. 6075 José María Arguedas Lima-2016", whose objective in this work was to determine the relationship between the study variables. The adopted method was the quantitative one, descriptive type, correlational design; for the collection of data the questionnaire was applied. Reaching the conclusion that there is a relation between communication styles and work performance, it also indicates the same situation with the assertive style; but it does not present a relation between the passive style, aggressive style with the teaching performance.
After reviewing the corresponding theory and detailed background, the following problem was raised, according to research interests: what differences exist in the communication styles of teachers in public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020? From which the specific problems in what differences exist in the assertive style of teachers in public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020? as well as what differences exist in the passive style of teachers in public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020? and finally, what differences exist in the aggressive style of teachers in public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020?
The research is theoretically justified because it allowed to deepen concepts referred to this study variable and its respective dimensions that allowed to extend the knowledge. It is also important to point out that this study became practically relevant because it allowed comparing the communication styles in the teachers of both provinces with the purpose of implementing appropriate mechanisms in the interactions. Finally, the methodological contribution of this research is evident at the moment of contextualizing an instrument as well as developing a type of study that is not developed in this social context.
The general objective was to compare the communication styles of teachers in public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020, and also the specific ones detailed in comparing the assertive style of teachers in public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020, as well as compare the passive style in the teachers of the public educational institutions of the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020 and finally, compare the aggressive style in the teachers of the public educational institutions of the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020.
Type and design of research
The type of research adopted was according to Quispe (2012), the descriptive noun, descriptive level, comparative descriptive design. The same that, in terms of Valderra (2002), comes to be the basic, non-experimental, transversal design.
M1 V1 M1
M1 and M2: Samples observed for the corresponding comparison
V1: Variable observed in both samples.
Population and sample
The population was made up of all the teachers in the educational institutions of the district of Chuschi (Cangallo) and the district of San Juan Bautista (Huamanga). The institutions that belong to the first district: Jose Bernardo Alcedo, Carlos Ismael Noriega Jimenez, Jose Maria Arguedas, Quispillaccta, Ramon Castilla, San Bartolome, Siete De Junio and Valentin Pañiagua Curazao. With respect to the second district there are the following: 38928 Leoncio Prado, Faustino Sanchez Carrion, Fe y Alegria 50 Father Carlos Schmidt, Jose Abelardo Quiñones Gonzales and San Juan. Reaching a total population of 235 teachers.
The sample, from the perspective of Hernández y Mendoza (2018), was found in a probabilistic way since a stratified sampling was used and whose formula for finite populations of a study variable with an ordinal scale is represented as follows:
Where the values are: no = ¿? N = 235; Z= 1, 96 (95%); p = 0,5; q = 0,5 and E = 0,5. Once applied, an initial sample of 155 teachers was obtained, but which indicated a value greater than the margin of error when dividing the sample obtained with the population, and therefore the respective adjustment was made with the following formula:
From which it is assumed that no = 155 and N = 235, once the respective operation was carried out, a final sample of 93 teachers was obtained from the districts of Chuschi (46 teachers), which belongs to the province of Cangallo and San Juan Bautista (47 teachers), in the province of Huamanga and which, according to Arias (2006), it is representative and finite. It is essential to point out that working with a probabilistic sample allows the generalization of results.
Techniques and instruments
The technique used is the survey, Sánchez and Reyes (2015), because it responds to the nature of this research and the instrument was the questionnaire, which was developed by Morales (2018) at the Universidad Autónoma del Perú, and which presents a reliability of 0.85. When adapting this instrument, which has 27 items with an ordinal scale type measurement, it was convenient to find once again the reliability and which reflects a value of 0, 86. The methods used were deductive, inductive and hypothetical deductive, and the SPSS version 25 program was used for data processing and the Mann-Whitney U statistician.
Once the data collection was completed, it was systematized by means of frequency tables at the descriptive level, the normality test and the comparison matrices for the hypothesis test. These are detailed as follows.
At the descriptive levelTable 1
|Communication styles||Chuschi||San Juan Bautista|
The results presented in this table indicate that 80.4% (37) of teachers in public educational institutions in the Chuschi district state that they only sometimes use a good communicative style, and with respect to public educational institutions in the San Juan Bautista district, they indicate that 91.5% (43%) of teachers also sometimes use, appropriately, communicative styles. These results allow us to conclude that they are not very differentiated.Table 2
|Assertive||Chuschi||San Juan Bautista|
The values presented in this table indicate that 56.5% (26) of the teachers in the public educational institutions of the Chuschi district state that they only sometimes use an assertive style and with respect to the public educational institutions of the San Juan Bautista district, they indicate that 76.6% (36) teachers also sometimes use this style. These results allow us to conclude that it is not very differentiated.Table 3
|Passive||Chuschi||San Juan Bautista|
The results presented in this table indicate that 80.4% (37) of the teachers in the public educational institutions of the Chuschi district state that they only sometimes use a passive style, and with respect to the public educational institutions of the San Juan Bautista district, they indicate that 70.2% (33) teachers also sometimes use this style. These results allow us to conclude that it is not very differentiated.Table 4
|Aggressive||Chuschi||San Juan Bautista|
According to the results presented in this table, 36.0% (29) of teachers in public educational institutions in the Chuschi district state that they only sometimes use an aggressive style, and with respect to public educational institutions in the San Juan Bautista district, they indicate that 66.0% (31) teachers also sometimes use this style. These results allow us to conclude that it is not very differentiated.
At the inferential levelTable 5
|Styles of communication||,436||93||,000|
The result obtained by means of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistician indicates a significance level of 0.000 in each dimension and which indicates that there is no normal distribution in the data, which makes it possible to use the Mann-Whitney U-statistician to corroborate the hypotheses.Table 5
|Styles of communication|
|U of Mann-Whitney||1058,500|
|W of Wilcoxon||2139,500|
|Sig. asymptotic (bilateral)||,774|
|a. Grouping variable: Chuschi-San Juan Bautista|
The Mann-Whitney U test allows us to test the difference in communication styles among teachers in public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020. According to the level of significance, the value obtained is equivalent to 0.774, which is greater than 0.05, a result that allows the rejection of the alternate hypothesis and the acceptance of the null one. Concluding that, at a 95% confidence level, they are not very differentiated.Table 6
|U of Mann-Whitney||974,500|
|W of Wilcoxon||2055,500|
|Sig. asymptotic (bilateral)||,326|
|a. Grouping variable: Chuschi-San Juan Bautista|
The Mann-Whitney U test allows us to test the difference of assertive style in teachers of public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020. According to the level of significance, the value obtained is equivalent to 0.326, which is greater than 0.05, a result that allows rejecting the alternate hypothesis and accepting the null one. Concluding that, at a 95% confidence level, they are not very differentiated.Table 7
|U of Mann-Whitney||1018,000|
|W of Wilcoxon||2146,000|
|Sig. asymptotic (bilateral)||,521|
|a. Grouping variable: Chuschi-San Juan Bautista|
The Mann-Whitney U test allows us to test the difference of the passive style in the teachers of the public educational institutions of the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020. According to the level of significance, the value obtained is equivalent to 0.521, which is greater than 0.05, a result that allows rejecting the alternate hypothesis and accepting the null one. Concluding that, at a 95% confidence level, they are not very differentiated.Table 8
|U of Mann-Whitney||1027,000|
|W of Wilcoxon||2108,000|
|Sig. asymptotic (bilateral)||,624|
|a. Grouping variable: Chuschi-San Juan Bautista|
The Mann-Whitney U test allows us to test the difference of the aggressive style in the teachers of the public educational institutions of the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020. According to the level of significance, the value obtained is equivalent to 0.624, which is greater than 0.05, a result that allows rejecting the alternate hypothesis and accepting the null one. Concluding that, at a 95% confidence level, they are not very differentiated.
Communication is considered an essential element in the interrelations of each person because it responds to diverse purposes and in which the styles of communication that characterize each interlocutor at the moment of relating intervene. In this sense, after observing the results, it is evident that the teachers in public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020, only sometimes use a good communicative style and this allows us to affirm that they are not very differentiated in these institutions. These results lead to the inference that these educational institutions do not implement strategies that contribute to interpersonal relationships because, from Watzlawick's (2009) position, behavioral modifications must be generated and also indicate, according to Serrano (2007), that opinions must be respected because otherwise there will be no common purpose among the members of the institutions. Similarly, it is evident that assertive, passive and aggressive styles are used to the same extent and also leads to the assertion that they are not very differentiated. This result is corroborated by the contributions of Estrada and Graterol (2015), who mention that assertiveness is not worked on in an appropriate manner because the right thing to do would be, assuming the position of Lange and Jakubowski (1976), the assertive style since it allows the person to express him/herself at the right moment and time, without having negative effects on the people who play the role of listeners.
When analyzing the comparison of the communication styles variable, it can be seen, by means of Mann-Whitney's U-statistics, that the teachers in public educational institutions in the districts of Chuschi and San Juan Bautista, Ayacucho-2020, according to the level of significance (0.05), the value obtained is equivalent to 0.774, which is greater than 0.05, a result that allows for the rejection of the alternative hypothesis and the acceptance of the null one, concluding that, at a 95% confidence level, they are not very differentiated. This result coincides with Alonso's research (2018) when he mentions that communication styles, for some, will be appropriate, but for others they will be the opposite; that is, they present the same ideals. This is due, according to Vértice (2009), to the fact that the context influences the moment of adopting a certain style and which configures the personality of each individual; that is to say, in terms of Carrasco (2006), it responds to behavior patterns as a product of interrelations.
As for the assertive style, it is also evident that at a significance level (0.05), the value obtained is equivalent to 0.326, which is greater than 0.05, a result that allows us to reject the alternative hypothesis and accept the null one, concluding that, at a 95% confidence level, they are not very differentiated in the educational institutions of the districts mentioned. This result is contrasted with the affirmation of Elizondo (2003), who mentions that there exists the ability to express emotions, feelings, and ideas in an appropriate manner among the teachers investigated, and that they essentially watch over the rights of all. Furthermore, Mandel (2016) maintains that these people have positive attitudes in the face of adversity. Finally, Gómez (2014) states that they give the respective importance to this style in the unfavorable situations that may arise in order to solve them.
With respect to the passive style, a similar result is obtained; that is, at the level of significance, the value obtained is equivalent to 0.521, which is greater than 0.05, which allows us to reject the alternative hypothesis and accept the null one, concluding that, at a 95% confidence level, they are not very different. Having these results, since Paau's (2015) statements, he indicates that there are limitations when communicating ideals and also, according to Covey (1997), he states that they are within a lose-win paradigm; that is, they prefer to put aside their concerns and give preference to others. It can be said that this style leads to the abandonment of responsibilities (Vieira, 2007). In these possible situations, the teachers of the institutions investigated are framed and the same that, possibly, they share in spite of being part of different provinces.
The last style, which is the aggressive one, has as a result that it is equivalent to 0.624, which is higher than 0.05, a result that allows rejecting the alternate hypothesis and accepting the null one, and concluding that, at a 95% confidence level, they are not very different. The same is corroborated by Covey's (1997) proposals where teachers who have this style always seek to impose their ideals and subordinate others. As they are subordinated, Paau (2015) mentions that the emotional aspect of those who fulfill the function of being the audience is not considered. From the details, it is appreciated that the communication styles are not very differentiated among the teachers researched. It is also demonstrated that the assertive, passive and aggressive styles are presented in the same proportion and are reaffirmed with the studies of Segura (2017) and Toc (2016), but it should not be forgotten that these styles are related to external and internal factors as mentioned by Morales (2018). To which it is necessary to mention that teachers show a regular communicative style and which must be reverted to an optimal level, in this case, assertiveness.
Finally, it is considered that the results obtained allow to assume measures so that the teachers have the appropriate style at the moment of communicating and which is subject to take into account, according to Fagot (201), Luna (2012) and Wharton (2001), the active listening, the freedom and the decision making; also, this study becomes a reference for next investigations that are oriented to consider that the assertiveness must be the style to be cultivated in the society.
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