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Delectus - Scientific Journal, Inicc-Perú - [ISSN: 2663-1148]

URL: https://revista.inicc-peru.edu.pe/index.php/delectus

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus

Email: publicaciones.iniccperu@gmail.com

Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): January-June [Edit closure: 01/01/2021]


RECEIVED: 26/10/2020 | ACCEPTED: 25/12/2020 | PUBLISHED: 01/01/2021

Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)

Lavado Rojas, B. M., Zárate Aliaga, E. C., & Pomahuacre Gómez, W. (2020). Multiple Intelligences and English Language Learning in University Students. Delectus, 4(1), 50-65. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i1.101


Multiple Intelligences and English Language Learning in University Students

Betty Marlene Lavado Rojas

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN ENRIQUE GUZMÁN Y VALLE, Perú
blavador@yahoo.es
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2924-6771

Edith Consuelo ZÁrate Aliaga

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN ENRIQUE GUZMÁN Y VALLE, Perú
edithzaratealiaga@hotmail.com
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1447-7873

Walter Pomahuacre GÓmez

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN ENRIQUE GUZMÁN Y VALLE, Perú
walterpoma10@gmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0276-9804

The objective was to establish the degree of relationship between multiple intelligences and English language learning in first year students of the Enrique Guzmán y Valle National University ofEducation.Study of quantitative approach, noun type, descriptive method and descriptive-correlational design. The population was made up of by 114 students; the sample was census.Data were collected using a questionnaire adapted from the instrument developed by Howard Gardner and a test that includes the four basic skills for learning the English language: listening, speaking, reading and writing. In order to determine the degree of relationship between the variables under study, the Chi Square Correlation coefficient and Spearman's Rho coefficient were applied. After its analysis, and according to Spearman's correlation of 0.473; multiple intelligences and English language learning are directly associated with a moderate positive correlation.

Keywords: learning; abilities; skills; intelligence; foreign language.

The general purpose of this work was to determine the degree of correlation between multiple intelligences and the learning of the English language in first year students of the Enrique Guzmán y Valle National University of Education.Therefore, it was considered necessary to describe the variables of study: the multiple intelligences and the learning of the English language in the context of university students.

In order to describe the variable Multiple Intelligences, it was necessary to know the theories that support them.In this aspect, Gardner (1995) indicated that intelligence«implies the necessary ability to solve a problem or to elaborate products that are important in a cultural context»; and, without rejecting that intelligence has numerous proposals, these are found between two currents, mainly, those that consider that intelligence has a unitary structure or a multiple structure.This dichotomy has been maintained for a long time, but recently these positions have come closer. Carroll (1993) has systematized this idea and proposes the existence of a complex intelligence, organized hierarchically.However, there are still alternative models to this agreement and one of them is the Theory of Multiple Intelligences proposed by Howard Gardner.According to this author, the capacities of our mind are not part of a single skill called intelligence, but of many that work in parallel and they are generally ignored simply because we do not value them.According to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, each person has several types of mental abilities that are independent of each other; therefore, human beings are able to respond to challenges and even improvise with flattering results.Gardner breaks with the traditional scheme of intelligenceto which, he gives a range of human abilities and bases his theory on the eight human cognitive abilities, which are: linguistics, logical-mathematical, body-kinesthetic, musical, visual-spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic; although, he suggests that there may be other intelligences that have not yet been discovered.

  1. Linguistic intelligence. It refers to the proper construction of sentences, the use of words according to their meanings and sounds, as well as the use of language according to its various uses. For example: poets, novelists, among others.
  2. Musical intelligence. It refers to the proper use of rhythm, melody and tone in the construction and appreciation of music. For example: Beethoven, Shakira, etc.
  3. Logical-mathematical intelligence. It refers to the facility to handle chains of reasoning and to identify patterns of functioning in the resolution of problems. For example: Einstein, (...), the engineers.
  4. Kinaesthetic intelligence. It points out the ability to manage the body in the realization of movements according to the physical space and to handle objects with dexterity. For example: Babe, (...), Pelé.
  5. Visual-Spatial Intelligence. Refers to the ability to manage spaces, planes, maps, and the ability to visualize objects from different perspectives. For example: Gasparov, (...), the architects.
  6. Intrapersonal intelligence. It indicates the capacity that a person has to know his internal world, that is to say, his own and more intimate emotions and feelings, as well as his own strengths and weaknesses. For example: Gandhi, (...), Freud.
  7. Interpersonal intelligence. It shows the ability to recognize the emotions and feelings derived from the relationships between people and their groups. For example: Nelson Mandela, (...), the leaders.
  8. Naturalistic intelligence. It refers to the ability to discriminate and classify living organisms existing in nature. These people recognize themselves as part of the environmental ecosystem. For example: Darwin, (...), the biologists.

In addition to these intelligences, Gardner (2000) is investigating two probable new intelligences, this means, they are still hypothetical approaches: moral and existential intelligence.

  1. Moral intelligence. Refers to the capacities present in some people to discern between good and evil, worried about respect for life and human coexistence.
  2. Existential intelligence.It points out the sensibility for the existence of the human being, it shows itself restless for reflections about the human transcendence, about alpha and omega.

With respect to the variable Learning of foreign languages that, in the last decades, suggests a communicative approach, whose fundamental postulate is that the learning of a foreign language must be directed to that the student manages to develop communicative competitions; this means, to the acquisition of a series of skills that allow them to communicate in that language in the most current situations of the daily life.Palacios (2008, p. 56) suggests that the communicative approach contributes to the development of the student's communicative competence, who achieves linguistic and sociolinguistic competence. The ability to adapt the linguistic media to the characteristics of each social context, discursive competence that includes the ability to analyze and synthesize the text; in order to be able to relate it coherently in a similar text and expose it in front of an audience and, finally, the strategic competence that requires the ability to initiate, develop and conclude communication.
The basic skills that are developed for learning the English language are as follows.

  1. Listening comprehension. It has to do with "understanding oral speech" (Antich, 1986, p. 209). Students in the sample must develop basic English skills, such as understanding sentences and frequent vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal importance (e.g.: very basic personal and family information, shopping, local area, employment). These are found in short, clear, and simple messages and announcements.
  2. Oral expression (Speaking).Ability to express ideas, feelings, needs, desires through language, with fluency and precision. Students in the sample can describe personal information, as well as, their most important experiences (personal, family, places of interest, occupations, among others); they can establish social contact with their peers when performing simple and daily tasks.
  3. Reading comprehension. Murcia (2000, p.58) states that reading implies the participation of a writer, a text and a reader; and the latter must perform activities such as recognizing written signs through decoding, interpreting them and understanding the author's interaction. In this context, the students in the sample are at a level of English that can read short and simple texts; find specific, reliable information in everyday material such as advertisements, brochures, menus and schedules. In addition, they can understand short and simple personal letters.
  4. Written production. Students must develop various skills to achieve written proficiency at the English level of the students in the sample; among them: write notes and simple messages with information, instructions, and directions related to everyday activities. Write simple personal correspondence where you can say thank you, or apologize, etc. Describes places or events in a simple way. Gives coherence to written text, using more important words and structures that indicate temporal and causal order.

From that perspective, we agree with Alarcón (2013), who states that "the development of multiple intelligences in the classroom favors the learning of English and it is motivating for students.Similarly, Palenzuela (2012) points out in his thesis that by applying a program whose method is based on multiple intelligences, it improves the quality of the teaching-learning of English in the elderly. At the same time, multiple intelligences facilitate attention to diversity in the classroom, and open a path through which the learner can discover his own weaknesses and strengths; learn to use them to achieve effective learning in and out of the classroom.Therefore, it cannot be denied that a positive relationship exists when the teacher applies activities based on multiple intelligences for the learning of the English language; given the variety of abilities that students possess and those that they must develop to communicate effectively in the language.

The research is limited to the quantitative approach. In this regard, Monje (2011, p. 11) points out that the quantitative approach in the context of social sciences has the purpose of seeking solutions to phenomena by establishing regularities in them, this means, finding general laws that explain social behavior.With respect to the type of research, it is substantive; according to Sánchez & Reyes (2006), substantive research is that which tries to respond to theoretical, substantive or specific problems, in that sense, it is oriented to describe, explain, predict or backtrack reality, with which one goes in search of principles and general laws to organize a scientific theory. Within this type of research is the descriptive one; therefore, we maintain that our research work is framed within this type.

In order to carry out the research, we chose to use a correlational design, this research will allow us to measure the degree of relationship between multiple intelligences and the learning of the English language. The method used in this research was the descriptive. For Sánchez & Reyes (2009), this method consists of systematically describing, analyzing and interpreting a set of facts or phenomena and their variables that characterize them in the way they are given in the present. Multiple intelligences and English language learning were described and analyzed.

The population of study was conformed by 114 students enrolled in the first cycle of studies of the specialties of English-Italian, English-Spanish as a Foreign Language, English-French and English-German, assigned to the Academic Department of Foreign Languages of theEnrique Guzmán y Valle National University of Education. Because it is a correlational study, all the units that make up the population were considered as a sample, and therefore the sample was of the census type.

For the collection of the necessary data for the analysis and the obtaining of the results, the survey was applied as a technique and the questionnaire as an instrument, in order to collect the information of the variable Multiple Intelligences.This instrument included 80 items, each of which had five possible answers: totally disagree (1), disagree (2), neither agree nor disagree (3), agree (4), totally agree (5). Also, the participant could only mark one alternative, with a cross (X).If you marked more than one alternative, the item was invalidated. In addition, its structure was distributed among the eight dimensions that corresponded to each of the intelligences studied: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, body-kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalistic.

For the collection of data on the English language learning variable, the Cambridge English Movers Test, also known as Young Learners English, was applied. This test, validated and applied by Cambridge University, it is recognized internationally and reflects the student's language and communication skills in the most reliable way possible; it has been designed to be impartial to users of all nationalities and linguistic backgrounds and it is supported by the largest research program in its field.The instrument consists of four parts, its scale is binomial. In addition, it is necessary to point out that the levels and ranges of the test applied to collect the information of the learning of the English language correspond to this variable and to each one of the dimensions: Very low [0-5], Low [6-10], Regular [11-13], High [14-17] and Very high [18-20].

The following ethical considerations were present in the development of this research: Copyright, writing the references where appropriate and in a reliable manner. Since the information was collected in a single time, the teachers who applied these instruments clearly explained to the participants the objectives of the research.In addition, the participants were told that their answers were confidential and their personal data would not be published, and for their consent they were asked to sign an additional form, which included their personal data and a code, which coincided with the one appearing on the instruments. Finally, it was explained to the participants that the result of this research will be used to propose the methodology and strategies that should be implemented in the syllabus of the different subjects in their careers; in order to improve the level of achievement of each one of them.

Descriptive analysis of the results obtained from the Multiple Intelligences variable
According to the descriptive analysis of each one of the variables and dimensions, we can interpret that for the variable Multiple Intelligences, the students of the first year of the specialties of foreign languages of theEnrique Guzmán y ValleNational University of Education demonstrate that they have a level of development of their intelligences that is in a range of Medium to Very High and that is equivalent to 88.6%, being the Medium range the one that obtained the greater percentage 50.9%, as opposed to 11.4% that is located in a Low level. The above is supported by Gardner's definition (1983), who points out that the human being possesses several types of mental abilities and that they are independent from each other.


Figure 1. Results obtained in musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal and kinesthetic-body intelligences

As shown in the figure, the musical intelligence is the one that obtained the highest level, considering the medium, high and very high ranks, reaching 88.6%, being the High rank the one that shows the highest percentage (44.7); against this, 11.4% of students have Low and Very Low level. This result allows us to affirm that the students have developed the right hemisphere where the perception and musical production is located. Therefore, they have the capacity to listen, sing, and create musical pieces, among others. (Mercadé, A., 2008, p.4).

It is evident that intrapersonal intelligence reached 87.7%, with the Middle range having the highest percentage (43.0%). And, 12, 3 % of students who have Low and Very Low level in this intelligence. This means that students are able to analyze what is going on in their minds and allows them the ability to access their own feelings and emotions which guide their behavior and conduct. According to Mercadé, A. (2008, p.5) the abilities involved are those that allow them to set goals for themselves, evaluate their personal abilities and disadvantages, and control their own thinking. Students who develop this skill to a greater degree are able to write autobiographies, diaries, reflections, essays, elaborate portfolios with poems, songs, etc.

Interpersonal intelligence is in third place, with the highest percentage in the Medium range (41.2) and 86% of students who develop this intelligence are in the Very High, High and Medium ranges, compared to 14.1 in the Low and Very Low ranges. This allows us to affirm that students have good relationships between peers, understand the emotions and behavior of their peers, so they are able to work cooperatively and collaboratively, propose and implement projects in class and outside it, like to conduct dialogues and conversations, role-playing, compose songs and stories in a group, among others.

Then, the kinaesthetic-corporal intelligence is located, where it can be seen that the Medium range is also greater (45.6); however, it can be seen that 85.1% of students are located in the Very high, High and Medium ranges, as opposed to 14.9% who are located in the Low and Very low level. According to Mercadé, A. (2008, p.4) the capacities involved are those that allow students to perform activities that require strength, speed, flexibility, eye-hand coordination and balance; and, they develop manual skills to create or make repairs and are very good at expressing themselves with the body. These skills are useful when learning a language through acting out stories, designing accessories, participating in games, making various objects for learning, for example, vocabulary, among others.


Figure 2. Results obtained in the logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, linguistic and naturalistic intelligences

As shown in Figure 2, logical-mathematical intelligence is in fifth place, and 83.3% of students have this type of intelligence, with the Medium range being the highest (44.7), and 16.6% being at the Low and Very Low level. According to Perea (2017), this intelligence consists of promoting the development of reasoning strategies. In order to work this intelligence, the numbers are useful and to solve numerical problems. Also, reading a problem several times to solve it, students become familiar with the vocabulary and structures used. This means, it allows the ability to solve mental operations, problem solving, among others. We can note that, students of foreign languages who possess this logical-mathematical intelligence with greater development than others, learn with facility the grammatical structures and become familiar with them.

The visual-spatial intelligence showed that 80.8% of students are in the range of Medium to Very High, with the Medium range having the highest percentage (51.8), 19.3% are in the Low and Very Low level. According to Mercadé, A. (2008, p.3) students have the ability to visually present ideas, create mental images, perceive visual details, draw and make sketches. Therefore, the activities that can be done for learning a language are: take pictures and make comments about them, use graphic organizers, mental maps, locate places, describe using time lines, among others.

Linguistic intelligence ranks seventh, with 77.3% in the Medium to Very High range, with the Medium range occupying the highest percentage (48.2). It can be seen that 22.8% have a Low and Very Low level of development of linguistic intelligence. For Mercadé, A. (2008, p.3) students develop the ability to understand the order and meaning of words in reading, writing, and also in speaking and listening; which allows them to write adequately. For this reason,Perea (2017) points out that this intelligence will be used to encourage communication and interaction.In addition, in the initial stages of learning, it is more important to develop oral skills in the teaching-learning of English with a communicative approach. Therefore, it is very important to develop activities such as Reading short stories, poems, descriptions, narrations, newspapers. Encourage discussions in groups or individually, declamation of short poems, improvisation of speeches on topics of interest to students, on daily activities. Memorization of poems, songs or stories. Telling jokes or telling riddles in class. Developing crossword puzzles and other word games, among others.

Naturalistic intelligence came in last place; however, the students showed an appreciable percentage of development of this intelligence. In this way, we can see that 77.2% are in the medium to very high range, with the highest percentage in the medium range (43.0), and 22.9% have a low and very low level of development of naturalistic intelligence. The students develop the ability to observe, experiment, reflect, and questioning of our environment; therefore, they develop the sensitivity to coexist in their environment and promote a culture of peace, and respect for the environment. Activities such as: observing the natural environment around them and making descriptions, writing reflections about how to conserve the environment, writing or exposing about the coexistence with nature and other beings, describing their pets, among others; they are useful for learning the English language.

Descriptive analysis of the results obtained from the English Language Learning variable

In relation to the variable Learning of the English language, we can point out that the students of foreign languages of the first year of studies have a High level, with 49,1 %, followed by 19 % of students who have a medium level and 18,4 % who shows a Very high level, which allows us to indicate that the percentage of students with mastery of the English language is greater, against 13,2 % who shows a Low level in the learning of this language.

When analyzing the results obtained in each of the dimensions of English language learning, it can be seen that in the Listening comprehension dimension, it obtained the lowest percentage among the first year students; being the High level, the one that obtained the highest percentage with 35.1%, followed by the Very High level, with 22.8% and the Medium level with 14.9%; compared to the Low level, which was 21.9% and Very Low level with 5.3%. This skill is essential and basic in the learning of a language and it allows the development of basic abilities, such as: understanding what is said in a simple daily conversation, recognizing the topic of conversation, understanding phrases and expressions of daily use, understanding the meaning of announcements, short and simple public messages, understanding news with the help of images, etc.

The oral expression of the students reaches a very high level of 35.1%, followed by the High level which has 33.3% and the Medium level where they obtained 11.4%; while 15.8% are in a Low level and 4.4% in a Very low level. These results allow us to point out that the students express themselves in the English language, and can carry out diverse activities, from the aspects of interaction and production; this means that they can communicate with others and express themselves in proposed situations. (CEF). Therefore, we can indicate that students are able to describe in a simple way, personal information, important experiences about them, their family, places of interest, occupations, among others. In addition, they are able to establish social contact with their peers when carrying out regular tasks, with a simple exchange of information. They can give concrete information on how to get somewhere, etc.

The Reading Comprehension dimension, presents the same levels and ranges as the previous dimension, the students reached in the Very High level a 35,1 %, followed by the High level that has 33,3 % and the Medium level where they obtained 11,4 %; while 15,8 % are in a Low level and 4,4 % in a Very Low level. According to the CEFR, reading is a comprehension skill and points out that students must understand simple and everyday aspects. In this regard, we must point out that students have demonstrated reading comprehension competence, so they have developed the following skills: understand short notes and messages related to personal and daily life, understand short and simple texts about practical issues, such as, booking a room, information about a course abroad, etc.; understand instructions and indications used in daily life, identify and understand information in brochures and other informative materials. As well as, relevant information in short and simple texts, understand short stories or narratives written in a simple way.

With regard to the Written Production dimension of the English language, it can be seen that students demonstrate a High level that is equivalent to 37.7% and Very High, with 23.3%, with the Medium level taking third place with 17.5%; while 14% have a Low level and 4.4% a very low level. In this regard, the CEFR points out that students can write a short and simple postcard; for example, send vacation greetings. They can fill out forms with personal information; for example, by writing their name, nationality and registering on a hotel form, among other activities. Usually, this skill is left to be developed at the end; however, it is important to note that it cannot be isolated, it has a close relationship between oral and written language; therefore, both must be integrated for better development.

The results found allow us to point out that multiple intelligences are a support for learning the English language and any other language that one wishes to learn. In addition, the activities presented in the classroom can be integrated, so that all students are allowed to develop the various intelligences and, in this way, improve the learning of the language.

As the general objective of the research was to establish the degree of relationship between multiple intelligences and English language learning in first year students of the Enrique Guzmán y Valle National University of Education, 2018, the general hypothesis test showed that there is a direct relationship between the study variables. According to the test of the Chi-square independence: 16,919 and with 9 degrees of freedom it presented a value of significance of 0,000 less than 0,05; that is to say, significant.Likewise, according to Spearman's correlation of 0.473, this represented a moderate positive correlation; therefore, it could be stated that multiple intelligences are directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, we can say that the greater the knowledge of the use of multiple intelligences, the greater the levels of learning of the English language.In this regard, Alarcón (2013), pointed out that the development of multiple intelligences in the classroom favors the learning of English and was motivating for students. Also, the use of activities focused on covering the multiple intelligences chosen for this study has favored the learning of English by students who have been enthusiastic and willing to participate, demanding more activities of this type.Similarly, Palenzuela (2012), affirmed that the effects of the method based on multiple intelligences of the student are very positive for the older adult, since he needed large doses of motivation and stimulus; the implemented method was able to provide this due to the characteristics of the student. This resulted in active participation and a high degree of involvement by the student in learning English.However, Bartolomei&Aguaded (2018), pointed out that it could not be proved that the application of strategies, which include the use of multiple intelligences, it could improve the teaching learning process in the teaching of foreign languages and that it could not be proved that the application of strategies, which include the use of multiple intelligences, it could improve the teaching learning process in the teaching of foreign languages.In addition, it found no significant difference from the study experimental group and the control group. Likewise, Luengo, E. (2015), pointed out that the preferences in terms of learning style or multiple intelligence in learning contributed little to explain the performance; furthermore, he supported his result in what was expressed by Martin & Mauri (2011), who affirmed that it is a positive result that the variables of learning styles or multiple intelligence do not predict the possible performance, since this means that the process of teaching and learning is equitable and there are no preferences that are favored.

The specific objective N°1 was to establish the degree of relationship between linguistic intelligence and the learning of the English language; the hypothesis test allowed to prove that there is a direct relationship between the linguistic intelligence dimension and the learning of the English language. Also, according to Spearman's correlation of 0.508, this represented a moderate positive correlation; so, it was possible to point out that linguistic intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language, it means, the greater the knowledge of the use of linguistic intelligence, there will be higher levels of English language learning. In this regard, Arias &Llamozas (2011) pointed out that the relationship between verbal intelligence and the level of achievement in learning English as a second language is moderate, that is, a high level of significance was not found between both variables. Similarly, Luengo, E. (2015), indicated that linguistic and musical intelligence usually have a significant positive relationship with performance, so the initial hypothesis of a significant relationship between linguistic intelligence and performance is fulfilled.

The specific objective N°2 had the purpose of establishing the degree of relation between the logical-mathematical intelligence and the learning of the English language, and the hypothesis test allowed demonstrating that there is a direct relation between the logical-mathematical intelligence dimension and the learning of the English language. Likewise, according to Spearman's correlation of 0.416, this represented a moderate positive correlation, for which it could be inferred that logical-mathematical intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, the greater the knowledge of the use of logical-mathematical intelligence, there will be higher levels of English language learning.In this regard, Inga, R. Basilio, H. and Peña, P. (2017), proved that the mathematical logical intelligence variable has a positive correlation with academic performance in students of the Civil Engineering Faculty of the UNCP, which implies that the higher the level of mathematical logical intelligence, the higher the academic performance. However, it differs from what was found by Luengo, E. (2015), since she states that logical-mathematical intelligence is not significant in relation to performance.

The specific objective N°3 proposed to establish the degree of relation between the visual-spatial intelligence and the learning of the language, in the hypothesis test it was possible to verify that a direct relation exists between the visual-spatial intelligence dimension and the learning of the English language. Likewise, according to Spearman's correlation of 0.276, this represented a very low positive correlation; however, given this low positive correlation, visual-spatial intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, the greater the knowledge of the use of visual-spatial intelligence, there will be greater levels of learning of the English language. In this regard, Luengo, E. (2015) stated that spatial and naturalistic intelligence, whenever they appear in meaningful relationships, they are negative.

The specific objective N°4 was proposed to establish the degree of relationship between the body kinesthetic intelligence and the learning of the English language, it was observed in the hypothesis test that there is a direct relationship between both variables. Likewise, according to Spearman's correlation of 0.353, this represented a low positive correlation. However, it was possible to point out that, despite this low positive correlation, body-kinesthetic intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language, that is, the greater the knowledge of the use of kinesthetic intelligence, the greater the levels of learning of the English language. In this respect, Alarcón (2013), highlighted the optimum response of the group of students to the activities proposed, in which they actively participated, showing themselves to be very alert and creative and surprising with fun occurrences related to the communicative situation. On the other hand, this group is very dynamic in general, so he appreciated this type of activities in which the movement was present promoting the body-kinaesthetic intelligence. By the way, Luengo, E. (2015) pointed out that the kinesthetic intelligence appears both with positive and negative relation depending on the course. Likewise, Carpio (2014) stated that the level of development of kinaesthetic intelligence, according to the perception of the parents, is medium high, according to the perception of the children, it is low, medium low and medium and, according to the perception of the teacher, it is medium.

The specific objective N°5 that tried to establish the degree of relation between musical intelligence and the learning of the English language, in the test of hypothesis demonstrated that a direct relation exists between the dimension musical intelligence and the learning of the English language. Likewise, according to Spearman's correlation of 0.471, this represented a moderate positive correlation. Therefore, it could be inferred that musical intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, the greater the knowledge of the use of musical intelligence, the greater the levels of learning of the English language will be. In this regard, Carpio (2014) noted that the level of development of musical intelligence; according to the perception of parents is medium high, according to the perception of children is medium low and, according to the perception of the teacher is medium. Similarly, Luengo, E. (2015) stated that linguistic and musical intelligences usually have a significant positive relationship with performance.

The specific objective N°6 that proposed to establish the degree of relation between the intrapersonal intelligence and the learning of the language demonstrated in the hypothesis test, that a direct relation exists between the dimension intrapersonal intelligence and the learning of the English language. Likewise, according to Spearman's correlation of 0.469, this represented a moderate positive correlation. Therefore, it could be indicated that intrapersonal intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, the greater the knowledge of the use of intrapersonal intelligence, the greater the levels of learning of the English language will be. In relation to the result found, it could be compared with that found by Alarcón (2013), who stated that when analyzing the questionnaires, the important role of emotional intelligence has been very significant: interpersonal and intrapersonal. In this regard, Carpio (2014) established in his research that the level of development of Intrapersonal intelligence, according to the perception of parents, is high, according to the perception of children, is medium high and, according to the perception of the teacher, is medium high. Likewise, Ramiro Sáez (2017) pointed out that the most developed intelligences and by which the student has been able to use the second foreign language to develop his own teaching-learning process, they are linguistic, corporal, natural, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence.

The specific objective N°7 that proposed to establish the degree of relation between the interpersonal intelligence and the learning of the English language observed in the test of hypothesis that a direct relation exists between the dimension interpersonal intelligence and the learning of the English language. Likewise, according to Spearman's correlation of 0.399, this represented a moderate positive correlation. Therefore, it could be inferred that interpersonal intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, the greater the knowledge of the use of interpersonal intelligence, the greater the levels of learning of the English language. In this regard, Carpio (2014) established in his research that the level of development of interpersonal intelligence, according to the perception of the parentsis high, according to the perception of the children is medium low and, according to the perception of the teacher is medium. In this respect, Torres and Valdivieso (2013) pointed out that, according to the applications made in the degree of Colegio de Bachillerato Universidad Libre, it was possible to interpret that the tasks that were focused on working on interpersonal intelligence led to greater performance in the communicative competence of the students than those tasks that aimed at work focused on intrapersonal intelligence, because the students can make up for their shortcomings through the strengths that other team members possess. Similarly, Alarcón (2013) stated that when analyzing the questionnaires, the important role of emotional intelligence has been very significant: interpersonal and intrapersonal. The group investigated stood out for a high level of interpersonal intelligence that allowed them to get the most out of the proposed activities, creating a very favorable environment for learning English.

The specific objective N°8 that proposed to establish the degree of relation between the naturalistic intelligence and the learning of the English language observed in the test of hypothesis that a direct relation exists between the dimension naturalistic intelligence and learning of the English language. Likewise, according to Spearman's correlation of 0.308, this represented a moderate positive correlation. Therefore, it could be inferred that the naturalistic intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language, for that reason, the greater the knowledge of the use of the naturalistic intelligence, greater levels of learning of the English language will exist. In this regard, Carpio (2014) established in his research that the level of development of naturalistic intelligence, according to the perception of the parents is high, according to the perception of the children is medium, and according to the perception of the teacheris medium. Similarly, Ramiro Sáez (2017) pointed out that the most developed intelligences and by which the student has been able to use the second foreign language to develop his own teaching-learning processare linguistic, corporal, natural, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence.

The general conclusion reached after the hypothesis test was that the multiple intelligences and the learning of the English language in the first-year students of the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle present a moderate positive correlation. That is, multiple intelligences are directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, the greater the knowledge of the use of multiple intelligences, the greater the levels of learning of the English language.

The linguistic intelligence and the learning of the English language in the students of the sample present a moderate positive correlation. In other words, linguistic intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, it can be pointed out that students who develop this type of intelligence will also have higher levels of English language learning.

The logical-mathematical intelligence and the learning of the English language in the students of the sample present a moderate positive correlation. That is, logical-mathematical intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, if students develop this type of intelligence, they can achieve a higher level of learning of the English language.

The visual-spatial intelligence and the learning of the English language in the students of the sample present a very low positive correlation. However, it can be said that a student who develops this type of intelligence will also be able to achieve a level of English language learning.

Kinesthetic intelligence and English language learning in the students in the sample also show a low positive correlation. However, it can be stated that a student who develops this type of intelligence can also achieve a level of English language learning.

Music intelligence and English language learning in the students in the sample represent a moderate positive correlation. In other words, musical intelligence is directly related to English language learning; therefore, the better the musical intelligence, the higher the level of English language learning.

Intrapersonal intelligence and English language learning in the students in the sample show a moderate positive correlation. In other words, intrapersonal intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, a student who develops this type of learning, will also achieve a higher level of learning of the English language.

Interpersonal intelligence and English language learning in the students in the sample show a moderate positive correlation. That is, interpersonal intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, the better the interpersonal intelligence, the higher the level of learning of the English language.

The naturalistic intelligence and the learning of the English language in the students of the sample present a moderate positive correlation. In other words, naturalistic intelligence is directly related to the learning of the English language; therefore, if the student develops this type of intelligence, he or she will achieve a higher level of learning of the English language.

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