Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): January-June [Edit closure: 01/01/2021]
Suggested quote (APA, seventh edition)
Naranjo-Toro, M. E., & Guerra Reyes, F. E. (2020). Research Training for Undergraduate Students in the Elementary Education Bachelor’s Program. A Systematic Review . Delectus, 4(1), 39-49. https://doi.org/10.36996/delectus.v4i1.100
Undertaking processes for the implementation of formative research is currently an unavoidable requirement that must be faced by Higher Education Institutions. This article proposes a systematic review related to formative research implemented with students who are trained as teachers. The main purpose of this study was to systematize the main documentary sources related to formative research in university students of Basic Education careers. The study found that formative research, as a guide for teaching-learning, constitutes an academic response and solution to the problems of the social and professional life of students in training and the community where they are inserted. Likewise, it enables both students and teachers, motivation for research activity, reflection on ethical standards, preparation in knowledge, methodologies and development of superior cognitive processes and guided research.Keywords:training research; teacher training; basic education; systematic review.
The primacy of the traditionalist model of teaching has been overcome by the demands of a globalized society and by the substantial changes in the way of learning in the digital society. Beyond a reproductive didactic model, which has not achieved the integral development of research processes, contemporary society needs to prepare new generations in productive didactic models that enable them to build and produce new learning.
Multiple investigations carried out worldwide have shown that the emblematic function of universities is the generation and dissemination of knowledge. Higher education institutions exist to try to discover new knowledge that allows us to understand natural, social and human phenomena; and, with thisto influence their development. In other words, the research function of the academy should be oriented towards understanding and solving the dilemmas and needs of the context in which it is inserted.
However, in the Ecuadorian context, in particular, there are insufficient proposals for research development directed at students that are based on teaching for understanding, the development of research processes and critical thinking, as well as the relevant use of new information and communication technologies.
In view of this demand for the improvement of research processes, this manuscript presents some conclusions related to the scientific relevance of formative research, which have been assigned to multiple studies conducted in Latin America, Brazil, and the United States (Blessinger and Carfora, 2014; Hernández et al, 2011; Oropeza, 2016; Ronquillo, 2017; Ruíz del Castillo and Rojas-Soriano, 2006; and, Torres, n.d.). The methodological process was carried out based on the proposals of Aguilera-Morales et al, 2018; Gómez-Luna, Fernando-Navas, Aponte-Mayor and Betancourt-Buitrago, 2014; Gough, Oliver and Thomas, 2012; Torres-Verdugo, 2016; and, UNAM, 2015.
The search for information in the specialized literature was fundamental to study the aspects related to formative research and its references. Therefore, first of all, in order to determine the words related to the systematic review, a question was posed to guide the searches, namely: What are the main documentary sources related to formative research with university students in basic education careers?
The search terms used were "formative research" or "inquiry-based learning"; "classroom research" or "inquiry-based learning"; "higher education", or "college" or "university". In order to find the information that supports this study, academic documents and information sources were reviewed, among which the following were prioritized: technical reports, scientific articles, theses and books, located in databases, search engines, platforms, digital repositories and university libraries, as shown in table 1:Table 1.
|Searchengines||Databases||Platforms of publishing companies||Digital Repositories||Libraries|
|BASE||Dialnet||Taylor & Francis Online||Open Access Repository Network of Ecuador||UTN Library|
|Dimensions||ProQuest||Springer Link||UTN digital repository||Personallibrary|
|DOAJ||Redalyc||Consortium of University LibrariesofEcuador|
Source: Access databaseforresearchers
Type of studies selected: a search was made for research in Spanish, Portuguese and English, of the following types: descriptive, qualitative and quantitative.
Organization and synthesis of the information: first, it was determined that formative research constitutes a current object of study, as evidenced by the diagram generated in the Scopus database (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Scientific articles published on formative research in the last ten years
Source: Researchers' database
Article identification process
In an approach to the study theme, 408 results were located through the systematic search. In figures 2 and 3, an example of the syntax table of two databases is shown: Scielo and Scopus, namely:
|22 documents found: (formative research at the university) AND in:("scl" OR "mex" OR "col" OR "chl" OR "arg" OR "ecu") AND la:("es" OR "pt") AND year_cluster:("2018" OR "2016" OR "2017" OR "2019" OR "2020") AND type:("research-article") AND subject_area:("Human Sciences" OR "Applied Social Sciences")|
218 document results
TÍTULO-ABS-KEY-AUTH ( formative research ) Y ( LIMITE DE-A ( PUBSTAGE , "final" ) ) Y ( LIMITE DE-A ( accessType (OA) ) ) Y ( LIMITE DE-A ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Estados Unidos" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Reino Unido" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "España" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Brasil" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Colombia" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Mexico" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Chile" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Argentina" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Cuba" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Peru" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Ecuador" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Puerto Rico" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Venezuela" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Costa Rica" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , " RepúblicaDominicana " ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , " Haití " ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , " Jamaica " ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Panamá" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Uruguay" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Bolivia" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "El Salvador" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Honduras" ) O LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY , "Nicaragua" ) ) Y ( LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2020 ) O LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2019 ) O LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2018 ) O LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2017 ) O LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2016 ) ) Y ( LIMIT-TO ( DOCTYPE , "ar " ) ) Y ( LIMIT-TO ( SUBJAREA , " SOCI " ) O LIMIT-TO ( SUBJAREA , "ARTES" ) ) Y ( LIMIT-TO ( IDIOMA , "Inglés" ) O LIMIT-TO ( IDIOMA , "Español" ) O LIMIT-TO ( IDIOMA , "Portugués" ))
Articles that did not have the key words: "formative research" or "inquiry-based learning" or "classroom research" or "inquiry-based learning" or "higher education" or "college" or "university" in the title and/or abstract were removed.
The articles that met the following criteria were included in the current research: descriptive, qualitative and quantitative research, in Spanish, English or Portuguese, a sample of undergraduate university students and the fact that the central theme is Formative Research. Studies with a different sample of undergraduate and graduate university students were excluded.
Two research professors were involved in the search and selection process of the studies and the analysis process of the included studies. These reviewers carried out their analyses independently from each other.
After the execution of the searches in the various academic information sources, referred to above, 76 documents were determined.
With regard to training research, there are nine studies carried out at the national level in Ecuador:
In relation to formative research, 67 studies were found that were carried out at an international level, of which 61 correspond to scientific articles, three doctoral theses and three books:
It is important to emphasize the advantages that, for the research processes, are generated by having a wide availability of the academic databases, mentioned above. However, for the object of research proposed, the University's affordable and paid databases are more useful, namely Scopus, SciELO and Dialnet. On the other hand, those of high academic level are also those of free access such as: The reference, DOAJ and Redalyc.
After the execution of the previous process, the 76 selected documents are listed, namely
With the support of the Mendeley and Endnote programs, authors with more citations were identified and their articles were read to select those that contribute most to the topic of study. Among the main findings, it was determined that:
Aguilera-Morales, D., Martín-Páez, T., Valdivia-Rodríguez, V., Ruíz-Delgado, Á., Williams-Pinto, L., Vílchez-González, J., & Perales-Palacios, F. (2018). La enseñanza de las ciencias basada en indagación. Una revisión sistemática de la producción española [Inquiry-basedscienceteaching. A systematicreviewofSpanishproduction]. Revista de Educación [JournalofEducation] N° 381. http://bit.ly/3bOrCCh
Blessinger, P. y Carfora, J. (Ed.). (2014). Inquiry-based learning for the arts, humanities and social sciences. A conceptual a practical resource for educators. Emerald. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Gough, D., Oliver, S., Thomas, J.(2012). An introduction to systematic reviews. SAGE.
Gómez-Luna, E., Fernando-Navas, D., Aponte-Mayor, G. y Betancourt-Buitrago, L. A. (2014). Metodología para la revisión bibliográfica y la gestión de información de temas científicos, a través de su estructuración y sistematización [Methodologyforbibliographicreview and informationmanagementofscientifictopics, throughitsstructuring and systematization]. DYNA, 81 (184), 158-163.http://bit.ly/3bPzK5F
Hernández, F., Forés, A., Sancho, J.M., Sánchez, J.A., Casablancas, S., Creus, A., Herraiz, F. y Padró, C. (2011). Aprender desde la indagación en la universidad [Learningfrominquiry at theuniversity]. Octaedro [Octahedron].
Oropeza, M. (2016). Formación de la competencia investigativa en docentes de la educación media superior [Formationofresearchcompetence in teachersofuppersecondaryeducation]. Tesis de doctorado, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba [PhD thesis, University ofHavana, Havana, Cuba]. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Ronquillo, L. (2017). La formación de la competencia investigativa en los estudiantes de licenciatura en ciencias de la educación, menciones fisicomatemáticas [Theformationofresearchcompetence in studentswith a Bachelor'sdegree in educationalsciences, with a mentionofphysico-mathematics]. Tesis de doctorado, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba [Doctoral thesis, University ofHavana, Havana, Cuba]. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Ruíz del Castillo, A. y Rojas-Soriano, R. (2006). Vínculo docencia-investigación para una formación integral [Teaching-research link foran integral formation]. Plaza y Valdés.
Torres, A. (s.f.). Aprendizaje basado en la investigación. Técnicas didácticas [Research-basedlearning. Didactictechniques]. TEC de Monterrey. http://bit.ly/2woaZx5
Torres-Verdugo, Á. (2016). Guía de fuentes de información iberoamericana para la investigación educativa [Guideto Ibero-American informationsourcesforeducationalresearch]. http://bit.ly/2SH34DT, UNAM (2015). Vocabulario controlado [Controlledvocabulary]. Iresie. http://bit.ly/2HAc6w9